Appendix D

Important Civilizations not reaching the highest rank

EUROPE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASIA:

 Russia

 Germany

 Ottoman  (Turkey)

Portugal

 

 

 

 

Japan

1915 

  1900

1512 

1480 

 

 

 

 

1960

 1970

 1945

 1683

 1530

 

 

 

 

 1990

 All dates AD

unless noted BC

 

 

 

Cambodia

900

 1200

 

 

 

 

* China

* Iran-NeoPersian

India-Ashoka   

Indus River (Pakistan)

100BC

247BC

 270BC 

 2500BC

 300AD

 651AD

 185BC

 1700BC

 

 

 

 

 

 

AFRICA:

 

* Aksum empire (Ethiopia)

 

100AD

 

700AD

 

 

 

 

 Carthage (Tunisia)

800BC

201BC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AMERICAS:

Peru (Inca)

1400

1500

 

 

 

 

Mexico: 

1. Aztec

 

1400

 

1500

 

 

 

 

2. Maya

  500

  900

 

 

 

 

3.Teotihuacán

100BC

700AD

* Aksum was named by Mani (216–276) as one of the four great powers of his time along with Persia, Rome, and China. By the 1st century AD, Aksum was a major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India. The Aksumite rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency, the state established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. Aksum became the first major empire to convert to Christianity.


The "struggle for recognition" among nations This notion from Hegel was used by Fukuyana in his book "The End of History." It indicates that countries will go to war over prestige issues as much as for economic gains. Like the alpha male in a wolf pack, nations seem to want to be recognized as the "top dog." This desire led to some bitter conflicts in the 20th century, where Germany, Russia, and Japan strove for the "top dog" recognition their nations had never received. The Ottomans were similarly greatly feared, until their defeat at Vienna in 1683. In earlier centuries, nations were not as aware of other leading civilizations in the world (particularly in the Americas and Africa). On a regional basis, however, the "struggle for recognition" seems to have played an important part in warfare and in the development of World Leadership Civilizations (as with Rome vs Carthage).

Go to: IQ's of 80 nations including the above and the areas of Leading Civilizations

Go to: outline of this World Civilizations section of the website

Comments to: VanSloan@yahoo.com