Appendix E

World History - simplified

The World Leadership Centers below influenced other regions in styles and many other ways. A study of them often sheds light on developments in neighboring parts of the world. For example, the culture of the Byzantines greatly influenced the development of Russia. In the 1700's, governments in Russia and Prussia spoke French!

1900's United States

1800's Great Britain

1700's France

1600's Netherlands (Dutch)

1500's Spain

1400's Italian Renaissance


1100-1300's and 600-700's China

1000's and 500's Byzantium

800-900's Islamic (Baghdad)

400's India


200BC-400AD Rome

500BC-200BC Greeks

1100-500BC Near East (Syria/ Iraq area)

2700-1100BC Egypt

4300-2700BC Sumer (southern Iraq)

An overview course in World History, taken anywhere in the world, could profitably concentrate on these top fifteen civilizations. They have provided many of the technological and artistic achievements on which other cultures are largely built (as the "Arabic" numerals of Gupta India). The influence of these top civilizations often extended far beyond their borders. Indonesia, for example, shows the cultural influences of India, China, Islam, the Dutch, and the US, usually from traders coming at times when their home civilization was leading the world.

Other history courses could include topics that are mainly relevant to developments in local areas. For example, medieval Europe would be important for Westerners to study, while others in the world might benefit more from their regional history. Charlemagne was an important figure in Europe, but he had little effect on developments in world history. It's unfortunate that most world history books devote much more time to him than to the Gupta leaders, whose civilization had a much greater impact on later developments in the world.

Go to: Complete list of 24 World Leadership Centers

Go to: Home Page ( for more on this new approach to history

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