Howard Gardner's "Intelligence Reframed" (1999)

On other writers:

"Business people and tough minded social scientists are probably more likely to gravitate toward "The Bell Curve," while teachers, social workers, and parents are probably more likely to embrace "Emotional Intelligence." (However, a successor volume, Goleman's "Working With Emotional Intelligence," sought to attract the former audience too.)"

"Sternberg noted that these latter forms of 'practical intelligence' are extremely important for success in our society, and yet are rarely, if ever, taught explicitly or tested systematically....And he has found that people's ability to deal effectively with novel information or to adapt to diverse contexts can be differentiated from their success with standard IQ test-style problems. (These findings should come as no surprise to those who have seen high-IQ people flounder outside of a school setting or those who, at a high school or college reunion, have found their scholastically average or below-average peers to be the richest or more powerful alumni at the event.)"

Three Key Questions about Intelligence:

1. Is intelligence singular, or a set of independent faculties?

"In the ongoing debate among psychologists about this issue, the psychometric majority favors a general intelligence perspective." "(Sternberg's) work has been of greater interest to psychologists, while mine has captured the interest of educators and the general public." (Gardner recognizes that his Multiple Intellingences theory is a minority view among academics.)

2. Is intelligence predominantly inherited?

"There is more support for the view....that intelligence is inborn and that a person can do little to alter his or her quantitative intellectual birthright. Studies of identical twins reared apart provide surprisingly strong support for the 'heritability' of psychometric intelligence."

3. Are intelligence tests biased?

"Psychometricians have striven to remove the obviously biased items from intelligence measures....There has been much legal wrangling about the propriety of making consequential decisions about education (or indeed, life chances) on the basis of IQ scores.....Nevertheless, intelligence testing...have actually won the war. Many widely used scholastic measures are thinly disguised intelligence tests." (as SAT tests - see comments of other IQ-SAT experts).

On Social Intelligence:

"Unfortunately, we don't know a lot about personal intelligences. We do not understand their operations well, we do not know how to measure these intelligences, and we are not skilled in training them. This fact helps explain why businesses have little patience for people deficient in personal intelligence." (Gardner wrote this before his Feb 2000 comment on Social Quotient's ability to measure social intelligence,)

Go to: Research findings on IQ, EI, and Social Skills

Go to: Social Skills vs Social Intelligence

Go to: Criticisms of Gardner's MI theories

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