Sloan responds to questions on IQ and SQ:

Any message I get that may be of general interest to visitors to the SQ web site is added to this section, along with my reply. This preserves the dialogue as a sort of FAQ (frequently asked questions). The period covered below is from April 1, 2006 and later. Click for 11/1/04 to 3/31/06 Q and A or earlier.

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Comments to: Information on Van Sloan

From: ""

To: "''"

Sent: Sunday, August 28, 2016 1:57 PM

Subject: Questions About the Flynn Effect and About Genetic Variability Between Races Versus Individuals

Flynn Effect; Population genetics tells us that group allele frequencies can change quite rapidly under appropriate selective pressures. Microevolution is real.

The Flynn Effect is said by most experts NOT to be due to genetics. They allege that genetic changes could not produce such an effect so quickly.

But, the Flynn Effect is a group effect, is it not? One is comparing two populations, one an older generation than the other. And the Flynn Effect is not quantitatively all that large.

So, how does one know that the Flynn Effect is not genetic? How does one know that it is not due to changes in allele frequencies in the populations studied, changes due to selective pressures? In other words why is it not an example of rapid microevolution? One doesn't yet have good information on the many genes that must influence IQ. How could one have any knowledge of allele frequencies of these genes between older and newer population groups? For that matter how could one know such allele frequency differences between the self-defined black population in America today versus decades ago?

The black population is to the best of my knowledge self-defined on the purpose of most if not all IQ studies. Yet the intermarriage between blacks and whites, plus the traditional self assessment of racial category based on "one drop" of black blood, means that there are very likely proportionately more mixed race "blacks" in today's "black" population than there were decades ago.

How then can one be sure the supposed closing of the B-W IQ gap isn't microevolution, i.e., isn't genetic?

Genetic Variability: When one reads arguments to the effect that between-individual genetic variability is greater than interracial genetic variability, how could such analysis possibly take into account allele frequency differences that exist between populations, including races, but to the best of my knowledge cannot be evaluated or even defined between individuals? Are allele frequency differences not at the very core of the racial differences? They certainly seem to be the main difference in on trait, which is skin color itself. Are allele frequency differences not a form of genetic variability between populations? But how can one even define allele frequency differences between one individual and another?

Sloan replies: Bob, you raise interesting questions about the Flynn Effect, which is not well explained by social scientists. Personally, I feel it is not due to genetics, other than the continued intermarriage of Whites with Blacks and Latinos in the USA. Better education (like critical thinking skills) and TV/ computer access to world knowledge may have helped.

Because discussions of IQ racial differences create harmful controversy, I feel that scientists should first try to understand other human group qualities. We don't know why West African athletes are fast sprint runners, while East Africans dominate in long distance running. That difference is much less controversial than IQ group variations. And the genetics or explanation of that athletic difference could go a long way in explaining IQ differences.

Currently, I'm re-starting my investigations of social skills differences among people, focusing on high school students. My past research in the area yielded data that group SQ (social skills) scores of US students showed no difference by race. And I learned that employers of high school students and grads were much more interested in hiring high SQ rather than high IQ students. You can read the details in my new website:

From: Dan


Sent: Thursday, November 5, 2015 4:34 PM

Subject: Grade Inflation

Do you have a stance on Grade Inflation?

There have been articles in recent years that state that grades have improved slightly in Public Universities (say 18%), but substantially higher in Private Universities (say 25%).

Have the IQs and emotional intelligence of the general population improved? Have students figured out how to game the tests and anticipate questions that would be asked by their professor and therefore, their scores have improved?

Alternatively, have the tests been ‘dumbed-down’ or standards lowered?

I noticed that the average GPA at my Alma Mater of UCONN in the college of Liberal Arts & Sciences is about 3.5. This seems too high. It does not seem plausible that on average the student would score a B+ or an A- on each examination.

Would the GPA 2.85 that I received in 2005 be worth like a 3.0 in 2015?

Sloan replies: Dan, yes, grade inflation in colleges is a problem, as mentioned in US News 12/26/2013 and other articles. It does not surprise me that grades in selective private universities have risen the most rapidly. The number of US and worldwide students trying to attend them has risen more rapidly than spaces available, allowing such colleges to become increasingly selective.

Unlike grade point averages, IQ scores are more stable, set to average 100. To get there, IQ's are adjusted for age, male-female differences, and for the unexplained gradual increase in human intelligence called the Flynn effect. These are discussed in my webpage A measure of grades that makes comparison over time more stable is class ranking in GPA's. That would be more easily understood by employers than an adjustment for inflation in grades.

While the Flynn effect on IQ could result in some justified grade inflation, many other suggestions like lower test standards or improved emotional intelligence seem unlikely. On the latter, my research on Social Quotient scores for 2500 high school students remains the only hard data on social skills. That study, summarized at includes the correlation of personal characteristics to SQ scores (that average 100, like IQ's).

From: Dan


Sent: Wednesday, June 10, 2015 10:22 PM

Subject: Emotional Intelligence

Do you place any validity on emotional intelligence to forecast the success of an individual?

I started out in Special Ed classes when I was 6. My birthday is at the end of October and I was small for my age. It turned out that I did not stay back a year. My SATs were Math 600 and Verbal 450. Since there is such a variance, what is my true IQ? I took the SATs when I was 16. Would I do much better if I took it again at 17?

I became an Enrolled Actuary. 98% of students scored 600 and higher on the Math when they were 16 or 17. If one scores less than 600 then you are discouraged and told the career is not for them. I got exactly 600 and stayed in the Actuarial Mathematics program at a State School. I may have been one of the worst of the dozen people who graduated, but still a graduate. Eventually, I became an Enrolled Actuary after taking each test 4 or 5 attempts. Others who scored 700 on the Math perhaps passed on their first or second attempt.

Can a person’s verbal ability improve with age/practice? I’m writing a fictional book, but it is taking me a long time to prepare it. My sister got a 650 on the Verbal and Math (1300). She is editing my manuscript and she is a CPA. An Enrolled Actuary is a tougher designation than a CPA and she is editing my manuscript, not the other way around.

I’m a first generation American, Jewish from Eastern Europe if that helps.

Basically, can a person’s IQ improve with age? Do you value Emotional Intelligence or some measurement that shows how stubborn or determined they are even if their IQ is ostensibly only appears average?

Please advise.

Sloan replies: Dan, your main question on Emotional Intelligence has been a research area of interest for me. Let me refer you to my web page on Research Findings on Career Success. It shows that IQ is important, but Emotional Intelligence, including Social Skills (SQ), is even more so

At the bottom of the above web page, there is a link to another page of mine: "Energetic" should be added to IQ, social skills, and ambition as a success talent You might find it and other links interesting for your career questions.

On your personal questions, one needs to blend Math and Verbal scores to get an IQ. Unlike you, most Eastern European Jews score higher on Verbal, while East Asians score higher on Math. You likely would have scored slightly higher on both SAT parts if you had taken the test at age 17.

Most people's verbal skills improve with age, as they read and use language more. But since IQ is based on one's peer group averages, most individual IQ scores do not change much after age 5.

Best of luck as you continue to do well, finding that you have talents other than just IQ that are important to job success.

From: Pete Lawson


Sent: Wednesday, February 25, 2015 9:47 AM

Subject: IQ Though the sentiment probably goes back to the Pharaohs,,,Authoritarian distrust and persecution of "smart { relative to themselves } people " dates historically more recently to European and Russian "purges of the intelligentsia",vague concepts of dissidents representing intelligence, and 3rd Reich testing and elimination of "intelligent people",,,notoriously adopted virtually worldwide with IQ testing of children and draconian eugenic modification of the world population to a stupider and stupider mass,, ,believed by a dramatically sub standard intelligence governmental body to be easier to manage,,,,,,The "false" intellectualism of the university's on the subject seems more than a tad confused,,,,,,being dependent on government welfare for their existence they have become citadels of ignorance,,, spearheading and being in total concurrence with governmental efforts at intelligence reduction,,,,,,And that's really about all there is to this subjects,,,efforts since 1950 have reduced the average IQ by a full 10 points,,,,laws concepts and mandates now exist restricting intelligence,{{{{{ US 2nd Appeals ,NY 2002 {discrimination by IQ} { Academia Emotional or replacement IQ} ,{ governmental entertainment propaganda efforts }, { blue collar or workers policy } { continued governmental structuring of society and economic resource }}}},,,,,,,and have transformed the human race into a morass of slothful non productive biologically inferior semi autistic idiots,,,,,THIS REVERSE EVOLUTION EFFORT """""WILL"""" RESULT IN EXTINCTION , ,,,,, ,dippas,,,,,, { docere' imertis pete philosophy anti stupidity }

Sloan replies: Pete, your email presents an interesting stream of thought, based on the assumption that IQ worldwide has been declining. But the overwhelming majority of IQ researchers find that IQ's everywhere have been INCREASING.

This result is known as the Flynn effect, and it is described well in the Wikipedia article at As you read the article, you will see that while the increasing IQ scores around the world are consistently documented, the forces behind this increase are not well understood.

So the long term outlook on human intelligence is much more optimistic than what you forecast.



DATE: Aug 19 at 10:15 PM

RE: Question About Article Concerning Poverty Versus IQ

Articles such as this one:

seemingly showing that poverty and other environmental influences are almost solely responsible for the b-w IQ gap seem to be touted lately in discussion groups I frequent as nearly definitive proof that there is no genetic component. This particula article is from 1994 I believe, relatively old. I don't know if there are similar more recent articles by the authors or similar articles by other authors.

I would be interested in your comments on such an article or simiilar, possibly more recent, ones of which I might be unaware. Were you aware of such studies? I assume so. Do you consider them powerful evidence of lack of a genetic component?

My initial thought after scanning the article was that the tests seem to be on 5 year olds only and not longitudinal enough to carry this testing to adolescence or adulthood. More importantly I wonder if the environmental variables involving poverty, parental makup, etc., are not themselves a function of the IQ of parents, which could still be a function of genetics.

Again, I am curious as to your knowledge of and feelings about such an article.

Sloan replies: Bob, here are some of my thoughts related to your email:

From the article you mentioned, at

"Age-5 IQ's are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems."

(Note that none of the studies measured the IQs of the poor or wealthy children's parents - which most scientists would feel would have the greatest correlation to a child's IQ.)

It is useful to look at similar papers the same authors have written, such as:


"The Effects of Poverty on Children" 1997

by Jean Brooks-Gunn and Greg J. Duncan

"In general, the studies suggested that a 10% increase in family income is associated with a 0.2% to 2% increase in the number of school years attended."

(From the above, many people might assume that if the government increased poor families' income 10% then their children would have lower school dropout rates. But social scientists know that "is associated with" is far from a direct causal effect. However, such statements help Congress pass Minimum Wage and other programs to boost poverty income - without any assurance that it will have the desired effect.)

Poverty effects listed in Table 1 include a few items related to IQ: (Note that most of these effects are likely as much related to behavior problems as to IQ)

School Achievement Outcomes (5 to 17 years)

Grade repetition (reported to have ever repeated a grade)

Ever expelled or suspended

High school dropout (percentage 16- to 24-year-olds who were not in school or did not finish high school in 1994)

Cognitive Outcomes: Developmental delay and Learning disability

(Note that Bill Cosby and similar commentators feel that African-American youth behavior problems are largely self-inflicted, not caused by some outside, negative situation.)

Scientifically, I am aware of just one non-behavioral factor that has been conclusively shown to have an adverse effect on child IQ - and that is child malnutrition up to age 5 (when the brain is developing rapidly). That largely applies to the poor in Black Africa, and not in developed countries like the US.

On Sunday, June 29, 2014 10:33 PM, Kenneth Wilson wrote:


Your findings re "national IQ" (inter al) in relation to national economic variables are quite interesting.

The range of "national IQ" values includes several (in the table below) that, literally interpreted, connote levels of functioning that "traditionally" have been interpreted as indicating markedly diminished intellectual capacity (e.g., those highlighted in the table at right).

It seems implausible, for example, that the average resident of Nigeria, Guinea, Zimbabwe, Congo, Sierra Leone Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea, respectively, tends to be a functional "moron", in the traditional sense of that term.

Please comment.

Best wishes,

Ken Wilson

Lawrenceville, NJ

IQ Range Classification 70-80 Borderline deficiency 50-69 Moron 20-49 Imbecile below 20 Idiot

For example:

Zimbabwe 66

Sloan replies: Ken, you and many others have commented on national IQ findings. Your "quite interesting" phrase is much more subdued than what most people write.

First let me refer you to my main Nation IQ webpage: On it, you will find links to its academic source: the book Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations and the bio of its leading author Richard Lynn. I believe that book's data is well researched and is as accurate as we now know.

Yes, I agree with you that the old IQ term "moron" is unfortunate. It has taken on additional meanings and probably should be replaced. The IQ system relates to abilities to perform, compared to others, in an academic setting - such as high school. Most students in the under 70 IQ level do not graduate from regular high schools; they usually drop out well before graduation.

On the other hand, my research in Social Skills, particularly in SQ (Social Quotient), shows that low IQ students show a normal range of SQ scores. In other words, they are able to perform in social situations relatively normally. They are not social morons. It seems to me that most people wrongly lump academic morons and social morons as being in the same group.

I find it sad that many people in the world, particularly in Africa, have low IQ scores. Their futures are limited. But the fact that many of these individuals have average to outstanding social skills means that they could contribute to society in many ways other than in using academic type skills.

cc Richard Lynn

On Sunday, May 25, 2014 10:09 PM,

Charlie V wrote:

I thought that the mean IQ for whites was 100 and the one sigma value is 15 points. For blacks the mean IQ is 80. This means that 50 percent of the people have IQ’s less than 100 and 80 respectively. 33% have IQ’s less than 85 and 65 respectively. Where do these people find jobs.

Sloan replies:Charlie, on IQ's of races, the arguments and data change. But on my webpage, I believe the chart data has not changed significantly. Black IQ in the USA is around 85, while black African IQ ranges between 60 and 80. Yes, these IQ numbers are low, and Blacks both in the USA and around the world have difficulty finding reasonable paying jobs. They compete with others with higher IQ's. Sadly, low IQ individuals of all races sometimes can find only subsistence pay jobs or work that is dangerous or illegal.


From: Dovicon Delos Santos

Subject: Social Quotient

Sent: Jan 4, 2014 at 8:59 PM

Hi, I keep looking online and can't find a Social Quotient (SQ) Test for my Psychology Research. Do you have an available questionnaire of this? Your immediate response is highly appreciated. Thanks, Dovi

Sloan replies: Dovi, When you search for Social Quotient on Google, their second listing is a link to the first page of my SQ website. On the top of that page, next to the photo, it shows: Click: Male or Female to take a short Social Skills test.

Those tests are a rough indication of a person's Social Quotient, based on qualities that are most closely correlated to male or female SQ scores. An individual's actual SQ score is developed from ratings that are given by others to people they know reasonably well, as in a classroom setting. Unlike most psychological tests, SQ results are not determined by how an individual rates himself. Only the opinions of others count towards an SQ score. Because of the complexity of developing true SQ scores (needing a group process), it has not been continued since my original research project.

I would be interested in learning about your project and would welcome your comments on what you read on my Social Quotient website.


To: ""

Sent: Monday, August 5, 2013 8:08 AM

Subject: Which IQ test is used in chart

Hi, I was just wondering which IQ test is used in the comparison chart to the SAT scores. Thanks for your time.

Sloan replies: Terry,when social scientists compare SAT scores to IQ test results, they use the reliable IQ tests that are available for an individual. These can be are individually administered IQ tests (one school psychologist testing one student) or known reliable group tests, such as those done by MENSA. They never use the short, non-monitored type of IQ test that one finds on the Internet. For an interesting commentary on SAT vs IQ results, see this webpage by an expert:

From: ""


Sent: Thursday, July 11, 2013 6:15 PM

Subject: IQ Of Reporters/Journalists?

I have seen many versions of tables showing average IQ by occupation. I have never seen journalist, or reporter, or writer, or media-person listed in such tables. The so-called "intelligentsia" plays a commanding role in this country. I have my own, rather negative, opinion of their intelligence. Where in such tables is one to locate an average IQ for the average talking head one finds on TV or the editorial writers on other media? Most of them are NOT professors, teachers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, scientists. Nor are most of them in other high IQ professions. Is this profession, i.e., journalism, so heterogeneous that no average IQ can be determined for it?

Sloan replies: Bob, I think your last sentence in your email is the most likely answer to your question. There is a large difference in talent between local and national media personnel. And sports, lifestyle, and similar writers may not have a need for as high an IQ as someone covering an economics/ financial beat.

Bob responds: My bet is that it would show blacks actually doing better than whites, because they have other skills besides IQ in which they excel, social skills; that in addition to the role of affirmative action. Is such a study not technically feasible? Could it not be done from a large data base, especially one like the current government seems to be gathering? Would not the large data base (whose source I have forgotten) used often in the book, The Bell Curve, suffice?

Sloan replies again:You ask an interesting question. To my knowledge, such a study has not been done. I suspect that the result would turn out even. If whites got the nod, it would show racism. If blacks won out it would show that affirmative action worked.

Bob responds again: Thanks for the response. I admit I didn't necessarily expect one. So, I am pushing my luck. I have another question for you. Is there to your knowledge (can you give me a reference to) a study or studies which select(s) a large group of white Amercans matched for IQ with the African-American IQ distribution curve and randomly selected for all other variables in an attempt to factor out those other pertinent variables from the black versus white group, which then compares the two groups with similar IQ distribution and and similar other factors, except for race itself, in terms of economic or other types of success? In other words, if one compares two groups where the only clear variable is black versus white race, and where all other possibly relevant variables, including IQ distribtion, are made the same, will there still be a difference in success rate, poverty rate, jobs, educations, etc. between black and white races? Can this be done? Has it been done?

From: ""


Sent: Friday, March 29, 2013 10:00 PM

Subject: Sephardic intelligence.

Hello. I wonder myself about the IQ of Sephardic Jews because many of prominent intellectuals/politicans french Jews today are Sephardic. Normally they woudln't have such high positions in the french society while (according to your studies) Sephardic Jews have an average IQ of 88.

But there is another thing which we must consider, is that the Jews of which I'm talking about look not arabic at all. I can tell you some of them: Jacques Attali, Bernard Henri- Lévy, Olivier Strauss-Kahn, Jean Luc-Mélenchon, Jean-François Coppé, Alain Afflelou, Eric Zemmour, Paul Amar, Jean-Pierre Bacri, Jacques Derrida. Check them out if you want, they look a little bit white, they are all Sephardic.

I think is a question of ancestrys as well, maybe they did not mixed and they are half Ashkenazis or their roots. I saw that many of theirs forefathers had eastern-europeans origins from Romania or Hungary for example.. By this, I mean that not all Sephardic Jews are arab ethnically. I think this 88 IQ concerned Mizrachi Jews which represented Sephardic population perhaps in the North Africa.

Sloan replies: Thanks for your thoughtful input. Your email on Sephardic IQ points to likely answers to the questions you raise. The estimate of 88 IQ includes the 40% of Israelis outside of Ashkenazi Jews (40%) and Arabs (20%).

Your mention that many prominent Sephardic French Jews had Ashkenazi ancestors. Like America's "Black" president Obama, who is 50% White, intermarriage of ethnic groups complicates IQ analysis. And one needs to bear in mind that in any population, there are individuals born whose IQ's are both much higher and much lower than group averages.

From: Royce Wong


Sent: Sunday, March 24, 2013 6:35 PM

Subject: iq chart (link is in the message) For what age does the IQ in the IQ chart apply to? (ex. 15 years old)

Sloan replies: Royce, the IQ/ SAT charts would essentially apply to a 15 year old. For background, you should know that IQ scores for children are relative to children of a similar age. That is, a child of a certain age does not do as well on the tests as an older child or an adult with the same IQ. But, relative to persons of a similar age, or other adults in the case of adults, they do equally well if the IQ scores are the same

IQ can change to some degree over the course of childhood. However, in one longitudinal study, the mean IQ scores of tests at ages 17 and 18 were correlated at r=.86 with the mean scores of tests at ages five, six and seven and at r=.96 with the mean scores of tests at ages 11, 12 and 13. So results for a 15 year old would be very close to the chart.

From: Dan Michaels


Sent: Wednesday, January 30, 2013 11:36 PM

Subject: IQ and State Provision of Education...

Compare average IQ per country with state provision of education, minimal in most of Africa, and you may have the most logical explanation.

(Things may change if the Libertarians get their way in your country...)

Concerning "racial" disparities within countries, just compare with IQ in relation to categories of wealth.

(Wealth seems to determine IQ far more than the contrary, take Obama as just one example and compare with his relatives from less privileged backgrounds).

As for genocide favouring intelligence in Jews but not in blacks, that's very "selective" (no pun intended), and this is coming from a Jew!

(And the cold favouring high IQ argument is reminiscent of the "slitty eyes due to walking towards the sun" one in my opinion.)

Sloan replies: Dan, your comments are interesting, but I believe are not as persuasive as the the general beliefs of social scientists, as presented in my SQ website. Here are further thoughts on your points:

1. In India and much of southeast Asia, state support of education is also minimal. Yet IQ's of these Asian countries are significantly higher than IQ's of African countries.

2. The correlation between wealth and IQ does not mean that wealth is the determining cause. The wealthy oil rich nations like Kuwait have national IQ's noticeably lower than IQ's in poorer southern Europe (like Italy or Greece).

3. As a percentage of the population, the genocide of European Jews has been much greater than genocide in Africa or elsewhere. It is significant that in Israel, Jews of European descent have noticeably higher IQ's than fellow Israeli Jews of north African and Middle Eastern descent, who suffered much less from genocide.

4. The cold favoring high IQ is a theory that has not been well tested. But I believe that it does take more brainpower to survive in central Asian winters (from which peoples of high IQ's later migrated to Europe and China) than in the warmer climates of Africa and south Asia. IQ's in India are quite varied, likely a result of periodic invasions from colder regions to the north - and from the caste system which those invaders established.

From: David Turner


Sent: Friday, October 19, 2012 3:12 PM

Subject: Black Intelligence -

I read a large part of your site but you are questioning the reason for the paradox of blacks being very intelligent.

Did it occur to you that MANY areas; The UK and US Negro propulation is at least 50% white.

If genetic tests were done, I am betting that the high scorers had non-negro, whether Asian, European, Indo-European or Indian genetic traits.

Very often we are blinkered by what we see. A black man is a black man sometimes only in color. They may actually be more white!

Obama come to mind?

A mild negro facialmstructure but very white indeed. I think that would more than likely rwefute the paradox

David Turner

Sloan replies: David, your thoughts on Black intelligence are similar to those of major researchers on IQ of nations. I agree with those thoughts. However, we must realize that crediting white genes for higher average IQ's of Blacks in America compared to IQ's of African nations can me emotionally divisive (even if factually correct).

Thanks for reading my site and your comments on it.

From: Anthony Conlan

Subject: IQ Job List


Date: Monday, May 14, 2012, 3:22 PM

Dear Mr. Sloan,

I saw the list of IQ's and jobs and I was wondering if there is a more up to date list at the present time. This is just a curiosity. I don't think there are enough high IQ people to fill what I would call all the high IQ jobs. High IQ jobs would be professors, engineers, doctors, lawyers, accountants, MBA's, etc. Has anybody ever done actual IQ Tests on people or are the researchers just surmising? There are a number of good free online IQ Tests that could be used to test this. Thank you.

Sloan replies: Anthony, that list of IQ and jobs is only roughly accurate. Because there is little controlled IQ testing done after school graduation we’re not likely to get better numbers.

You identify a more critical issue – the number of high IQ workers needed in the US and Canada. That is particularly noticeable at my webpage, where East Asian countries show higher IQ’s than the US and Europe. Furthermore, those Asians reading a geometric word character system score particularly high in math, valuable in the computer economy.

Canada has a more welcoming immigration policy than the US. That increases the number of high IQ immigrants and new ideas. I cannot think of a better way to increase the dynamism of a country. Certainly one more educational reform idea is not likely to provide the high performing graduates from US cities that the modern economy needs.

From: TJ

Subject: Race and IQ


Date: Saturday, April 14, 2012, 1:54 PM

Dear Sir:

I came across your site while looking for information about IQ and national wealth. Unsurprisingly, I got a bunch of "blacks have low IQ and are naturally dumb" links.

Unlike the majority of white scientists who have never been black for one day, I have been black all my days. For years I did not believe that anyone could be "naturally" intelligent or unintelligent. While your degree -- assuming you have one -- may be in psychology, one of mine is in history. I study the past and look for patterns and apply them to the future.

Here's what we can agree on: black people have lower IQ scores across the board than whites (whose IQ is lower than Asians, yet no one ever raises this point... I wonder why). Black Africans have ever lower scores than Black Americans.

You all in the self-appointed expert community are already ready to make it a case of "nature" running its course. Let's take a deeper look. There is one factor that blacks have that virtually every other group, especially the high IQ group, has: overadherance to religion and superstition. You may think it's minor, but it is a major hindrance. I don't need to go into how it affects Africa. You can turn on National Geographic and watch them praying to nonsense and still following all sorts of asinine ceremonies that they've been doing since 1 CE. I'm going to turn the spotlight on American blacks because I am one.

Hyper religious people are very ignorant. They do not see the flaws in their religion nor do they have any knowledge, value, appreciation or respect for science and its fruits. It's 2012 and I can find you 100 stadia full of blacks that will tell you to your face that their religious beliefs are true and that science is false. They will tell you that "god" controls everything. They will tell you that everything in the bible actually happened even though a quick scientific analysis shows that that is patently false.

When you have parents who believe this nonsense and they have children, they indoctrinate the children with this nonsense. Go to any black middle school or high school and ask the students if they believe the theory of evolution is true. Then ask if they believe that Adam and Eve existed. You will be floored by the results. I know grown black people that really think they could live to be 969 years old like Methusula if they "trust god". Indoctrinating their children with this nonsense has the very deleterious effect of killing off the natural curiosity which we are all born with. Why learn about science when "god" is the answer to everything?

The destruction of natural curiosity directly leads to the retardation of a nation's (or people's growth). Historically speaking, just before the "New World" was discovered, Africa and Europe were fairly on par with each other in terms of technology. Europeans followed their curiosity (Asians too to a lesser extent) and now we have all these Eurocentric nations of the western hemisphere. Africans did not. They were never curious about what lay beyond their general areas. They were never curious because they trusted their "gods", the same thing which occurs today. Even Desmond Tutu has said "when the white man came, we had the land and they had the bible; then he said 'let us pray'. When we opened our eyes, he had the land and we had the bible."

Look at it another way. Take a world map and really look at it. Where are the countries that develop the things we use to survive? Eastern Asia, Western Europe, Canada and the United States (to an extent). The peoples of these locations are not highly religious. They do not place their religion ahead of intellectual development.

Special point about the United States: look at a map of this country. Include all 50 states. Where does our technological research and development come from? New England, the west coast and the Pacific Northwest. All three of these areas have low religious adherence. The air is not better there, the water is not cleaner and there are still a fair number of minorities in all those locations. Now look at the midwest and the southeast. Hyper religious blacks AND WHITES live there. What gets invented there? Coca-Cola and Chick-Fil-A. Those are great products, but I am more impressed with Boeing, Apple, Microsoft, Facebook, Oracle, et al. Boeing can do more to get me from New York to Los Angeles than Chick-Fil-A.

My main point here is when black people stop being religious, they will achieve much more. The huge barrier to intellectual development will fall. At least, in that sense, black IQ scores will rise. Black people will stop spending hundreds of thousands of hours at the church and instead spend the energy learning about nature and developing new products and solutions. Black people are just as intelligent as anyone else on the planet, I don't give a flying fuck what some test made by whites say; imagine how you would perform if you were dropped in the middle of the Congo Basin and told to survive. There is certainly an intellectual impediment within blacks around the world, but it is cultural. It is something that did not fade away when it should have. Silly superstitions may be have useful in the time when man wondered if the sun would return tomorrow, but we already know that it will.

Also, I found your "optimistic" statements " IQ is largely fixed, so efforts to make black academic scores match country averages are not likely to succeed. But non-IQ success skills for blacks could easily match and perhaps surpass similar skills of whites. Look at all our successful, personable, black TV personalities!" to be inherently racist. TV stars? That's the best you can do? How about physicists like Neil deGrasse Tyson or historians like John Henrik Clark or even President Obama? We do have black engineers, mathematicians, pilots and scientists too, you know. We're not all cops, lawyers, politicians, musicians, basketball players, inmates, stars and actors. Have you ever heard of the National Association of Black Engineers?

Statements like that add fuel to the blacks-hate-whites fire.

Sloan replies: TJ, you raise an interesting point about highly religious people in the US and science literacy. I did an Internet search on the subject and found the site which reports on useful data on the subject:

“In a special issue of Social Science Quarterly, Darren Sherkat again shows that evangelicals are less science literate than other groups…The gap between sectarians [i.e., evangelicals] and fundamentalists and other Americans is quite substantial. Indeed, only education is a stronger predictor of scientific proficiency than are religious factors. … The religion gap is larger than the gender gap, which places women at a deficit of 0.85 when compared to men…Berkman and Plutzer's excellent Evolution, Creationism, and the Battle to Control America's Classrooms also found the same basic factors explained most of the variation in teachers' willingness to teach evolution: fundamentalism, rural life, and low education were the major predictors.”

None of the studies refer to IQ or race as factors in science literacy. I believe this science concern for US competitiveness is not a Black-White issue, but a religions and regional one. The popular 2004 Jesusland map, shown at points out a relevant regional divide in the US. Based on comments in your email, you might get a chuckle from it

TJ responds: I don't think you understand my hypothesis (or took my message seriously). It is this:

Blacks with low intelligence are that way because they are over-religious and thus not scientific. When I say "scientific", I mean in the sense of the Latin root word "scientia" which in English is "knowledge". That does *not* mean they have low intelligence because they don't know modern science. Here I mean "science" as the academic discipline. You can teach a black person science for 20 years and on Sunday morning at 9AM, still find them in a church.

Put another way, blacks don't ask why things in nature are the way they are. They just accept the fact that "god" made it like that. Fortunately for a small but growing minority of us, an apple doesn't fall from a tree because god made it do so; it's load on the limb is too heavy, a type of structural failure occurs and gravity brings the apple to the ground.

I thoroughly and totally reject the notion that blacks have lower intelligence due to genetics. In fact, that mindset was encoded in slavery when the masters told the slaves that they would forever be "hewers of wood" (Joshua 9:23). Hitler and the Nazis used similar lines of reasoning (which lead to the T4 Euthanasia Program). I don't see how anyone can postulate such a belief and call themselves non-racist. Though it may be veiled, there is clearly a notion of supremacy at the heart of such an argument. "Data" can easily be manipulated.

As for my main point about religion and intelligence, refer to these links for more information.

Although the second link is clearly slanted (yet historically accurate), I chose it because it has annotations. It provides a good argument as to why religious peoples' intellect continues to decline as each new generation is born, and I apply that to black people.

Sloan replies again:TJ, thanks for your interesting links on data about religiosity and intelligence. They show a correlation between the two. But correlation does not necessarily mean cause and effect. None of the data indicated that religiosity caused a lowering of IQ, your main hypothesis.

But I do agree that religious beliefs that are contrary to scientific findings can limit the useful knowledge of certain groups. Nevertheless, people can retain inaccurate knowledge but still have high IQ's. The data on identical twins raised separately show that genetics, not environment (like religious tindoctrination), has the greatest effect on one's IQ. So unfortunately I cannot support your hypothesis.

From: janzso, tibor

Subject: iq in races

To: ""

Date: Monday, April 9, 2012, 2:03 PM

Hello, is there a special study created to avoid the confusions claiming the origin of the differences in IQ? I mean: is there a study to analyse the differences of IQ in different races but in the same wealth?

Thank you

Tibor Janzsó


Sloan replies: Tibor, on IQ and wealth, the data closest to what you seek is based on detailed studies of the IQ of nations, described in my Take a look at figure 2 at the bottom, breaking out by race the IQ and incomes of average people in each nation.

For IQ and wealth by race within one nation, the most reliable data comes from USA college admissions tests (SAT and ACT scores). Only students planning to attend college take these tests. They do not include high school dropouts and usually are children of middle and upper income families. The test results show that the highest scores are received by Americans of East Asian descent, followed by Whites, then Latinos, then African-Americans - which is consistent with the nations in the figure 2 mentioned above.

From: Steven Hourihan ---

Subject: black iq and heritability


Date: Monday, January 23, 2012, 10:37 AM

hi, I'm trying to understand heritability and I'd like to try to clarify it and also offer a challenge to the assertion that blacks are genetically inferior in regard to intelligence. Okay:

If you take two identical twins, born in the 1980's in America, and reared apart, they might have IQ's of 115 and 117, for example. But if they were born 100 years earlier, in the 1880's, they might have had IQ's of 90 and 92. Or if they were brought up in an African tribe and received very minimal education, they might have even lower, but still similar, IQ's. Isn't that correct? Identical genes means two people have similar IQ's in similar circumstances. It doesn't set what your IQ number is. And the more different the circumstances, the lower the correlation will be, right?

Isn't it possible that blacks in America have lower IQs due to circumstances, without having inferior genes? Blacks are still significantly disadvantaged on average, and its not just a matter of poverty. Its a whole range of factors.

Blacks in America now have an average IQ that is higher than the white Americans of world war two. Couldn't it be that blacks currently have lower IQ's than whites because whites simply had an enormous head start in their development? While the IQ of blacks and whites has been increasing through the 20th century (and blacks have actually been gaining faster and closing the gap), whites started out with higher IQ's in the days when white and black circumstances were radically different in American society and blacks were enormously disadvantaged. So go back to like 1900 and 1930 to a very racist American society where blacks were enormously disadvantaged, and whites have higher IQ's. While both white and black IQ's have been increasing, white IQ's have been increasing from higher starting point.

hope you can address these points.


Sloan replies: Steve, the points in your second paragraph are basically correct.

On the other hand, your third and fourth paragraphs see to be mainly wishful thinking. There are many liberal intellectuals who believe along similar lines. But I do not feel that science to date offers good support for such thinking.

Consider that those same liberals would not feel that black basketball plalyers are over-represented in the NBA. They would even agree that West Africans have better genetic abilities in sprints, while East Africans are genetically better for marathons. But because IQ is so correlated to incomes, they want to believe that this one trait escapes the variabilities of race in genetics. It would be more comfortable for us all if race IQ differences could be explained by other factors. The huge differences in income around the world would be less. Check out the list of IQ by nations (more accurate than race IQ figures, in my opinion) at - and its correlation to incomes. Worldwide are Whites less advantaged than East Asians as shown by their lower IQ"s? Try to look at IQ as a worldwide characteristic, not just an American situation.

Hope this helps in your thinking.

Steve responds:

thanks for your reply. Sorry to impose upon you again but I have some follow up points :-D

how does science not offer good support for such thinking? As far as I can gather, what I said is perfectly plausible given what we know about IQ. I don't think that hypothesis has been disproved scientifically, has it? Black people in America have an IQ that is higher than whites during world war two. The white IQ has risen from that due to environment so we know the difference between our average IQ's can be accounted for by environment...and our environment is different, as well as our point of historical development. Where is the wishful thinking? It seems to me perfectly logical and compatible with current knowledge about IQ.

Yeah, there are differences across the world but the development of civilizations had to take place somewhere first, even if intelligence is the same everywhere. Civilizations developed across Eurasia, whereas life remained quite primitive and tribal for the most part in Africa, Australia and the Americas, which are relatively cut off from Eurasia by geographical barriers. Europe then developed science and modern industrial society, despite apparently being less smart than the Asians. It was then adopted by Japan and later China, which already had complex, well organised feudal societies, writing and intellectual pursuits...grammar, logic, philosophy...and were therefore at a stage of social and economic development where they were ready and able to adopt science and industry. Then there are a variety of cultural reasons why they might have slightly higher IQs now. Meanwhile, Africa a) didn't have the requisite social and economic development to immediately adopt capitalism and b) was subject to colonial and neo-colonial oppression and exploitation.

You might be right that there are genetic racial differences in personality and intelligence. It seems plausible to me, given what I understand about genetics and evolution and the physical differences I observe, but so does this other explanation. This other explanation is logical, plausible and hasn't been disproved, as far as I can see. So it seems to me that we simply don't know which explanation is right, scientifically. I lean slightly towards the social and cultural explanation, because it seems adequate. That's why I wrote to you. I thought you might know something I don't which would tip me towards the genetic explanation.

In answer to your question, I guess I would say that globally, white people are more likely to have higher quality of life and purchasing power at the moment, because of China. But if you only look at Japan and South Korea, then I'd say Asians from those countries have it better in some ways. Japan is an impressive society. The thing is, IQ and development correlate well but its hard to work out if development raises IQ's or if some peoples were more intelligent in the first place and that's why they developed.

Sloan responds again:

On IQ and race, as well as other unproven scientific hypotheses, there is a preponderance of the evidence that determines the current, best informed scientific opinion on such matters. You seem to understand that there are genetic racial differences. But you should know that my orignial research with 2500 high school students shows essentially no racial differences in personality/ social skills. In fact, Blacks are slightly preferred as friends.

As I mentioned before, many intellectuals do not want to believe that there are racial IQ differences caused by genetics. Like you, they find bits of data or plausible explanations to support their notions. But their wishful thinking does not match the strength of the data analysis supporting IQ differences by race or nation.

As one who has worked in Educational Administration for many years, I believe that the hypothesis that there is no genetic basis for IQ differences has led to unrealistic expectations for our schools. Even when matched for incomes and social status, majority Black and Latino schools cannot be expected to achieve results similar to majority White and Asian schools. Programs like Headstart have shown only temporary, not lasting gains. The belief that all races have similar IQ potentials leads to inappropriate pressure on minority schools and students to perform academically.

Instead of the unsatisfying study of IQ by race, I have been promoting the link between other skills (particularly social skills) in career success, as at my page. These other skills are often more important in one's income than IQ, particularly within a profession. Employers and colleges like this kind of addional information as a means of evaluating candidates beyond IQ skills tests. All races seem to be at similar levels in non IQ skills, on average. And unlike IQ, social skills can be improved with training and effort.

You seem like a smart individual. I would welcome your comments on such non-IQ matters.

From: Kathleen Fett

Subject: Races/IQs


Date: Tuesday, January 10, 2012, 11:42 PM

Hi there,

I would love to read more about this topic and have the evidence I need to shut my idiot professors up. A full list of references would really help me.

Thank you, Kathleen Sarnes

Sloan replies: Kathleen, while there are no clear studies of IQ and race, a very good approximation is the detailed work of Richard Lynn analyzing the IQ of countries. My summary of his work and related links is at The graph at the bottom comparing IQ's of Asian, White, and Black nations to the incomes of those nations is revealing.

There are a number of links on that page to more information on the subject, including a BBC news analysis of IQ and poverty in Africa. Hopefully this unbiased information, based on the latest science available, helps you.

From: Erik

Subject: How to be likable


Date: Friday, January 6, 2012, 6:32 PM

Your article makes me hopefull but Im still wondering whats wrong with people that are not likable?

I cant even image half of the stuff you suggested, its mentally impossible.

I am one of those people that are not likable, never was, tried alittle.

I cant keep a job or have roommates, my family, partner and friends of the family can barely stand me.

If you try to be likable and always fail what does that mean?

Sloan replies: Erik, you ask an important question that science is just beginning to address. People have many opinions on what makes others likable, but we don't have a lot of hard evidence on the subject. My finding from 2500 high school students is that the characteristics shown on help male likability. (I found that female likability traits in the USA are slightly different.)

For an overall view on likability traits, you might want to check out the general article at Some schools are beginning to teach likeability skills, particularly at the elementary school level. An associate is enthusiastic about one such program involving training with plush toys. For details and a link to videos showing their use, see I am thinking of measuring the effectiveness of this Kimochi program with my Social Skills evaluation system.

At present, I am not aware of similar, promising training programs for adults. But as they are developed, I would like to test their effectiveness as well.

To help in your efforts, let me suggest that you review the above links. Then consider how you act in comparison to what is known about likeability. Good luck!

From: Sairam Muthuswamy

Subject: SQ Test


Date: Saturday, October 22, 2011, 3:59 AM


I have seen some of your work/contribution in the internet. Very impressive. We found the SQ test to be an interesting item.

I am part of an NGO in India that works with kids and teachers in villages and we teach them life skills and help improve their IQ and SQ.

Do you have any discounted rates for NGOs.

Also do you have any other tests that we can run on kids and adults as we go about improving the outlook of these people.



Sloan replies: Sairam, your effort to improve the outlook for people in villages in India is commendable. You are welcome to use without charge any of the materials in my Social Quotient site ( ).

The short male and female Social Skills tests one can get to from the first page of that site are based on my data from over 2500 high school students in the United States. A page detailing those findings is at These results were quite consistent in all types of high schools, with one exception. In a rough, very low income school in New York City, courtesy was not particularly valued!

In India, values may be somewhat different than they are in America. Less than a year ago, I spent six weeks traveling in northern India. With many religions, the country seemed quite diverse to me, and I was unable to get a grasp of underlying Indian values. So the values from my SQ tests may apply differently in India. (For Japan and China, see my comparisons below with Western social values. Those countries have less diverse populations than in India.)

In short, getting along with others in India (Indian SQ) may be different from the values in my SQ tests. From your NGO work with villagers, you might be able to clarify the matter. I have found that teachers are quite good at identifying the most socially skilled students in their classes. If you could identify the values or characteristics that those popular Indians have in common - and email the results to me, I would be grateful!

I am sending a copy of this email to two New Delhi residents I got to know well during my visit. Hopefully, they also will send me their thoughts on underlying India values and personal characteristics that contribute most to good social skills in India.

One final thought: while a person’s social skills (SQ) can be improved with training, research indicates that IQ does not change. But basic reading and math skills can be improved. I would urge tests of those skills, rather than IQ, be added to the social skills tests that you do with the villagers.

Good luck in your efforts!


Values: East (based on Japan) vs West

Confucian/Tao/Buddhist vs Christian

Harmony vs Doing the right thing

The group is most important vs Rights of the individual

Don't stir things up unnecessarily vs Get to the bottom of the matter

Consensus is best vs Competition breeds winners

Cultivate relationships vs Develop a good personal record

Long run results count the most vs Celebrate recent achievements

Improve yourself vs Improve society

Inner peace (low stress) vs Joy from the smiles of others

Don't interfere with others outside your family vs Helping others you don't know

Rich should give to charity vs Extra taxes on the rich to pay for services to the poor

Appreciate nature as it is vs Use technology to let nature work for people

Holistic medicine vs Counteract the disease

Bring beauty into your own home vs Good community planning

Authorities deserve respect vs Leaders should serve the people

Last year I traveled in southern China for several months, including a 3 week stint helping teach English to 50-75 post-college students in Yangshuo. In my teaching, I had the students think and express themselves on parts of the above chart. I could not find much solid Internet information on Chinese/ Western values comparisons and was curious as to how the Chinese differed in thinking from the Japanese. Interestingly, the upper middle class Chinese in their 20’s generally felt that their values were midway between the East and West priorities above, and had been moving towards the Western values. (In contrast, the Japanese I had talked with in Kyoto expressed no such movement in their values.)

Sode sends the report from the research done

Dear Van Sloan,

PFA of the research paper on Social quotient and thanks for your help because of which I was able to complete the paper.

Thanks & Regards, S.Raghavendra A Study to derive the relation between SQ & Performance

Prof. S.Raghavendra Prof. Vrinda Kulkarni

Generally it is believed people with high Intelligence Quotient are better performers and have high chances of succeeding in their professional life. But it’s not only the IQ which is important but other levels of intelligences like Emotional Quotient and Social Quotient etc which helps a person to succeed. This paper attempts to draw a positive link between the SQ and Performance.

Social intelligence as described as, the exclusively human capacity to use very large brains to effectively navigate and negotiate complex social relationships and environments. Ross Honey will, believes social intelligence is an aggregated measure of self and social awareness, evolved social beliefs and attitudes, and a capacity and appetite to manage complex social change.

For research purpose, questionnaire and websites are used for data collection with a sample size of 30 to be analyzed using Correlation Coefficient and it is proved that there exists a positive correlation between SQ and Performance at significant level of 1%.

Key words: Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, Emotional Quotient, Performance, Correlation Coefficient.

In this era of globalization, everyone is in the cat race to succeed in their career and it’s becoming more and more complicated to assess the job seekers on different criteria. Some believe high IQ is the key to success and some support EQ or SQ, but none of these levels of intelligence can be termed as ideal one for all the job specifications. For some jobs like scientists, high IQ is might be the factor for success and for some jobs EQ and SQ might be the crucial factors. In this paper researchers try to find an answer to the following question, Is there any relationship between the SQ levels and the Performance of the people working in IT sector? Before proceeding further, it’s important to understand different aspects of SQ and Performance. Social intelligence describes the exclusively human capacity to use very large brains to effectively navigate and negotiate complex social relationships and environments. Ross Honeywill believes social intelligence is an aggregated measure of self and social awareness, evolved social beliefs and attitudes, and a capacity and appetite to manage complex social change. Social competencies like being courteous, smiling, communicating our thoughts, to show positive attitude etc place very important role to in everyone’s life and especially to achieve the success and to measure the SQ levels, researchers have used structured questionnaire developed by Van Sloan with his due consent. The performance rating of the respondents are taken into consideration for which data is collected from immediate superior involved in performance appraisal of the respondents. And then the relation between the SQ and Performance is derived by use of correlation coefficient. Performance is defined by various authors in different ways, and various measurement techniques used are as follows Graphical rating, 360 Degree, BARS, etc.

Objectives • To measure SQ levels • To extract the overall performance rating of the employees. • To correlate the variables under the study. • To know the level of significance of the correlation coefficient for the variables under the study.

Research Methodology

Hypothesis The assumption of the study is that, there is significant level of relations between SQ and Performance of the elements, pertaining to IT sector employees.

Null Hypothesis There is no significant level of relationship between SQ and performance of the elements, pertaining to IT sector employees.

Primary Data For the study purpose researchers have collected the primary data using questionnaire. Questionnaire consists of 11 multiple choice questions.

Secondary Data Mainly websites were used to collect the secondary data and the list of sites is enlisted in the references.

Sample To test the above said hypothesis researchers have surveyed 30 employees along with their immediate superior involved in measuring the performance of these respondents working in Wipro Technologies Ltd., Hyderabad campus and they have used convenient sampling technique.

Research Analysis To prove the hypothesis researchers have used Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient with a significant level of 1 % by using MS- Excel, the summary of the analysis is as follows.

Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation N PFM .87 .346 30 SQ .80 .407 30

Correlations PFM SQ PFM Pearson Correlation 1 .784** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products 3.467 3.200 Covariance .120 .110 N 30 30 SQ Pearson Correlation .784** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products 3.200 4.800 Covariance .110 .166 N 30 30

Conclusion The findings of the study show that, there is positive correlation between the Performance and the Social Quotient at the significant level of 1 %. Limitations • Study was restricted to 30 employees working in Wipro Technologies Ltd. • Cost and time factors. • Conclusion might not be applicable to all the job positions. • Geographical restriction as study was conducted at Hyderabad Development centre only.


From: Jeff R.

Subject: Correlation of my SAT scores with my recent IQ test


Date: Sunday, October 16, 2011, 9:04 PM

Recently, I underwent neuro-psychological evaluation to look at some longstanding cognitive concerns --- I've long suspected that I suffer from adult ADHD (Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder.) Part of the evaluation included the WAIS-IV tests (the "Wechsler scales"), and correlating the scores on those with my high school SAT scores allows me to (roughly) estimate how my cognitive abilities have changed over the years. Also, that correlation gives a data point for evaluating your website's table for IQ-SAT correlation.

I suspect you've acquired some familiarity with the Wechsler scales in your study of IQ testing, so I won't go into detail about them --- in case you're not familiar with them, they are described ad nauseum at any number of websites. I will confine myself here to noting that the Wechsler scales offer 4 scores, rather than a single "IQ," and that wide discrepancies among those scores are key diagnostic indicators of ADHD. In my case, my maximum and minimum scores are separated by more than 3 standard deviations, which more than suffices to confirm a diagnosis of ADHD.

The first-among-equals of the Wechsler scales, and generally perceived as the most SAT-like of them, is the Verbal Comprehension Index, VCI. My score on that is 138. My combined verbal-math SAT score, from 1969, was 1390. Looking now at the correlation table on your website, an SAT score of 1390 gives a 15SD (that's what WAIS-IV uses) IQ of 136.9 . The agreement of my VCI score and your table to within just over a point is nothing short of breathtaking correlation, wouldn't you say?

Once key concerns that makes me just a little hesitant to conclude that my SAT and IQ have been definitively correlated is that the SAT has undergone various revisions and re-normalizations over the years. Therefore, an SAT-IQ comparison must reflect the appropriate version of the SAT. You don't give any particular years your table applies to, yet you use it to make SAT-IQ comparisons for Bush and Gore. I don't know exactly when either took the SAT, but assuming they did that the same year they started college, that would have been 1965 for Gore and 1964 for Bush. I can't find any evidence of major changes to the SAT exams between then and 1969, when I took the exams, so I assume that your table would apply as equally to myself as it would to Bush and Gore, fingers crossed!

I leave you with this question: Can you shed any further light on the time period your SAT-IQ table applies to?

Sloan replies: Jeff, your email shows a much greater understanding of IQ than most people have. Your two converging scores are suprisingly close, but also an indication of the reliability of IQ testing done professionally. If your recent score had been from an online IQ test, I would have said the correlation was mainly luck. My SAT correlations are based on the 1960-1995 era. Probably more recent SAT test results would also yield useable IQ results.

I am not experienced with ADHD solutions, and would look to medical professionals for appropriate countermeasures in a case like yours. In any case, you should be quite happy to verify that you have a high IQ, one that most others can only envy.

Jeff R. responds again

Well, my "understanding" of IQ is really just gleanings from intermittent bouts of websurfing over the past few weeks. I imagine it pales next to yours.

May I trouble you with two more questions?

1) Is the Wechsler VCI score really a reliable proxy for an SAT-based IQ assessment? That's an assertion I've seen (in passing) on several websites --- sorry, I didn't keep the links --- but I've not seen a whole lot of hard data to support that. The (astonishingly) good match-up of my VCI and SAT scores certainly doesn't disprove that they're well-correlated, but considering that it's only one data point and that accidents can happen, it would be nice to know more about those quantities correlate. Note, though, that I'd be truly amazed if the two were completely uncorrelated!

2) You state that the table in your website is valid from 1960 through 1994, but that seems to be somewhat at odds with MENSA's practice. MENSA does accept pre-1994 SAT scores as valid IQ measures, but as shown here the qualifying score abruptly changes on 9/30/74: it is 1300 before that date, and 1250 afterwards. Since MENSA's minimum (SD 15) IQ is 130, that is what corresponds to SAT 1300 pre-1974, which closely matches your website's table (SAT 1300 = 15SD IQ 130.46). A possible reason for the abrupt change: "...both verbal and math sections were reduced from 75 minutes to 60 minutes each, with changes in test composition compensating for the decreased time" (see here ). I would think your website's table would have to be altered to reflect that change too, no?

Sloan replies again: Jeff, your questions presume that IQ numbers and their relation to SAT tests are more precise than they really are. The College Board which develops and administers SAT tests denies that SAT scores are a measure of intelligence - and they discourage efforts like mine to show a correlation.

Correlations of the verbal part of SAT and other tests like Wechsler usually show closer results to IQ scores than the math parts of tests. So your close Wechsler correlation is not a surprise.

On your question of pre and post 1974 SAT test scores, I do not feel that their differences are great enough to warrant a sepate chart of correlations to IQ - especially when the overall science of IQ measurement is not that accurate anyway. Nevertheless, IQ scores remain the most widespread and accurate measure of human abilities in the psychological realm.

I have pioneered a measure of Social Skills (SQ), which employers feel may be as important a quality for hiring decsions as IQ. You might find my webpage on Research Findings on Career Success a useful start in exploring non-IQ aspects of success. One important difference between IQ and SQ: people can do little to improve their IQ, but they can work to improve their Social Skills, ambition, etc.

Jeff R. responds once again Your points about the precision inherent in the IQ-SAT conversion are well-taken. The website provides separate IQ-SAT correlations for the periods pre-1974, 1974-1996 and post-1996 . Here are the (15SD) IQ's it gives for my 720/670 math/verbal, 1390 combined, SAT scores:

pre-1974: 134.7

1974-1996: 144.1

post-1996: 142.2

These scores, combined with the IQ obtained from your table (136.97 rounded to 137.0), give a mean score of 139.5 and a standard deviation of 3.6 . These statistics fall well within the confidence interval of my Wechsler VCI score: 131-142, 138 nominal.

Regarding the "best" Wechsler scale to correlate with SAT-based IQ, your observation that verbal scores of intelligence tests have the most reliable correlation is consistent with what I've read elsewhere and is certainly supported by the correlation of my own scores.

Permit me to somewhat broaden your comments about the importance of social (as well as cognitive) IQ metrics into a discussion about just what these metrics signify. For decades now, many have deeply distrusted intelligence tests in their role as meritocratic gatekeepers on various grounds that you're doubtlessly aware of: the tests' intrinsic accuracy/scatter; questions about the meaning of "intelligence;" the tests' ethnic and cultural biases, etc. The intelligence-testing industry has made no-small concession to the second of these concerns by adopting multiple intelligence scales: Stanford-Binet and Wechsler now use 4. As anyone can infer from my widely-differing Wechsler scales, no one score really applies to me, and that has been reflected to no small degree in my academic and profession career. One elementary school teacher I had thought I was slow and wanted me to repeat it, but a year later, I was placed in the school's intellectually-gifted program on the basis of a school-administerd IQ test, most likely a short-form Stanford-Binet test --- alas, I was never told exactly what my score was, and the school destroyed my records a long time ago. In my professional career, I've endured what seems to be rite-of-passage for many with ADHD: unable to fit in well in large organizations, I became self-employed. My web research on the correlation (and meaning) of SAT and IQ scores has confirmed what I've experienced academically and professionally: they say a great deal, but don't tell tell whole story, about one's cognitive abilities, and they're certainly not crystal balls into the life you'll lead.

From your website's material and discussions with you, I've obtained what I came for and more: a sense of how my cognitive abilities have changed over the years. It seems that the changes, if any, have been minimal, which is certainly encouraging. Your providing an SAT-IQ correlation table is a great service to the many aging baby-boomers who'd like to know how their minds are holding up at they near retirement. As per earlier, SAT/IQ scores aren't perfect metrics, but they're useful, and I think it's a shame that the Government, or the College Board, is unwilling or unable to develop the data on your website and make it available to the great many people who'd find it helpful.

From: Gough

Subject: Can you recommend an IQ test?


Date: Saturday, July 30, 2011, 9:31 PM

Sloan replies: I agree with Donald B of who writes: "IQ tests online are not valid. Real IQ materials are closely guarded and are available only to trained psychologists and school boards."

From: Hasan Sezer

Subject: don't worry we don't care about IQ

To: Van Sloan

Date: Tuesday, April 5, 2011, 2:41 PM

I am a black in Somalia. Our IQ level is about 70. but IQ is not important. We will not need any IQ in the heaven. I know that you are a racist. I was very lucky to be born in an islam country. See 99.5 percent of my people are Muslims. Quran says the unbelievers (Christians, atheists, jews) will go to hell. It means the Christians (all US and Europe), Jews and East Asians will go to hell. Who cares about IQ? All high IQ people will go to hell. Modern science has proved that quran is a revelation of the God. French surgeon Maurice Bucaille has proven that there are scientific phrases in the quran. Mohammed would not be able to write in his era. Modern science supports and proves that the book belongs to God. See so it means we are superior to all others. Modern science has proven that quran belongs to God. The believers of Quran are superior to the disbelievers (Christians, jews, East Asians) because the disbelievers will go to hell as Quran says so.

Sloan replies: Hasan, You seem to be more interested in what happens after death than in current life on earth. Did you know that Muslim counties from 750 - 1000 AD were the top civilizations on earth? (See my ). Experts think that Muslims lost their top position because they refused to accept useful outside ideas - believing that their religion had all answers. In the news today, Muslims in the Middle East are finally acting on ideas from outside, especially democracy. They want to make a better life for themselves here on earth. Yes, higher IQ's can lead to a more prosperous country. Good government, better schools and child nutrition can lead to higher paying jobs. I would encourage you to support a positive program like this for Somalia. Just being negative about what other countries are fiinding successful (as your email suggests) has harmed Muslims in the past. It would be good to learn that you support the positive changes other Muslims are now fighting for in their countries.

From: sode raghavendra

Subject: Request to use SQ test for Research project


Date: Thursday, March 31, 2011, 9:53 PM

This is S.Raghavendra from India. I am interested to do a research project on SQ were I am trying to derive the link between SQ and the performance of the employees working in IT sector, for which I need your SQ test questionnaire. So, I request you to permit me to use your test questionnaire on SQ for my study.

Sloan replies: S.Raghavendra, by SQ test questionnaire, I asume you mean the male and female popularity quizes, such as at . They should give you a rough meaure of individuals' social quotients. Yes, you are welcome to use those tests. Most of my work in SQ has been with high school students. I would be interested in learning about your research project and especially its findings. It would be informative to add your findings to my SQ website. Do keep me informed!

From: Vil Estrella

Subject: emotional intelligence inventory


Date: Friday, 25 February, 2011, 6:31 PM

I am a graduate student of St. Paul University, Philippines. I am in the process of writing my research related to emotional intelligence particularly the Four Domains.

In this connection, I would like to ask permission and information from you to use some parts of the BarOn Emotional intelligence Inventory of 125 questions specifically The four domains. May I request from you the rest of some questions and basic scoring of the four domains.

I will do appreciate it very much if you can extend me your help on this study.

Sloan replies: Villaluna, Sorry, I cannot help. Bar-on has asked me not to pass on their Emotional Intelligence inventory. Perhaps you might ask permission directly from Bar-on.

From: Jean Adhya

Subject: My child just received a higher creativity score


Date: Friday, 25 February, 2011, 4:54 AM

Is it unusual for a creativity score to go up by 12 points? My child's score is raised from two years ago in the same testing enviroment. This is along with other IQ tests.

Sloan replies: Jean, I am not as familiar with creativity tests as with IQ tests. But I suspect that the difference in scores you mention may result more from the variability in the test rather than in the year-to-year creativity of a child.

Jean writes again I apologize, I sort of tricked you. I am a concerned parent as my child has been trying to enter a gifted program for several years/is now in middle school. He took a pre-entrance exam which is like a voodoo test to me (his grades are excellent/well-behaved, etc.) and was turned down. Later my husband became suspicious and we found strong evidence to sugg that the test was forged/wrong answers were put in place of correct ones to keep him and certain types of other children out. Since we have threatened to go to the paper, the school has offerred to "retest" and now his Creativity score has come "up" by 12 points and is now 99 (highest score, there is no 100). His previous score was 86.6.

I wanted to know if the same test was used if there could be such a rise in the same student's creativity/ie, is creativity pretty much formed in the person from birth as is IQ? Or is it more elastic/able to be developed and exercised?

My feeling is that children who want to excel and be in advanced programs should be allowed to do the actual work and then if they fail they can see for themselves that the work is too hard. As it is, our child has been doing the advanced work for two years and done very well but cannot get official credit because he cannot pass the entrance exam which is kept secret/non-repeatable/non-challengable/given only every two years. Our child is mixed-race and this is Georgia.

But I was just getting your opinion about IQ and CQ. Are they similar? Can they both be raised/lowered? Or are most scores pretty solid from birth to death?

Sloan replies again: Jean, it appears that your main goal is to get your child into the school gifted program. And it seems that the school is trying to find a face-saving way of allowing him in. Although I am suspicious the new creativity test result, I would recommend going along with the school's efforts to enroll your child in the gifted program.

Whether of not he gets in, I would urge you, as a separate matter, to ask for a private meeting with the school board. They need to become aware of your evidence of mis-management of the entry process into the gifted program. If you are turned down or find the Board's response inadequate, then it would be appropriate to turn the story over to the press. I speak a a former administrator in three public school systems in California.

On creativity testing, you might find interesting. It summarizes the results of a 2009 International Conference on "Can creativity be measured?" We know much less about creativity than IQ. IQ seems generally fixed for life, after age 5. (Poor infant nutrrition can lower IQ for life). Current scientific opinion is that personality is more determined by environment than by genetics, and can definitely be modified. My opinion is that creativity may be in-between IQ and personality in its ability to be modified.

Good luck in your efforts on behalf of you child.

From: Chris Cornman

Subject: I have a question about FamilyIQ.


Date: Friday, 11 February, 2011, 1:30 PM

I was searching online to find more info about FamilyIQ and I came across your information.

Can you tell me, are you still involved with FamilyIQ? If you are, how are things going for you?

Sloan replies: Chris,sorry for the delay in answering your email - I have been vacationing in Mexico.

On Family IQ, I maintain an interest how IQ shows a strong genetic factor among family members, particularly identical twins raised apart and among siblings.

RE:Ashkenazi Jews

Friday, October 1, 210 5:14 PM

From: "Larry Trickett"


Ashkenazi Jews - These Jews are of European / Asian descent, so why would there be a difference?

It is believed that IQ is related to genetics, so what is so different about the Ashkenazi's? Another known fact about Ashkenazi's is that they are not of Jewish descent. they are not Hebrew, or from any tribe of Jews. I find these results highly suspect.

Sloan replies: Larry, you are right that IQ is largely related to genetics. I believe that the major reason the IQ of Ashkenazi Jews is high is the centuries of killings of Jews in Europe, culminating in the Holocaust. Many of the smarter Jews escaped to other countries.

As a result, the gene pool of Ashkenazi Jews who survived had a selection in favor of higher IQ's. The Jews in North Africa did not suffer as much killings over the centuries. Their average IQ is closer to that of other Middle East populations.

Your assertion that Ashkenazi Jews are not of Jewish descent is only partially true. Many did intermarry with Eastern Europeans, who show a higher average IQ than Middle Easterners. And some were local converts without any Israeli ancestors. But these facts alone would not account for the very high IQ's of Ashkenazi Jews. Events like the Holocaust can better explain the selective retention of the higher IQ individuals.

Larry answers again: Your missing the point, maybe I didn't make it clear enough (my fault), the Ashkenazi's are not of Jewish descent. The Ashkenazi's simply adopted the Jewish religion because it appealed to them more than any other religion at the time.

I have a disk with documentation explaining their history. If you would like that information please let me know and I will locate it and forward it to you.

This is what is confusing to me, they are not Jews.

Re: Reconnecting

Date: Tuesday, November 17, 2009 11:31 AM

From: "Marsharon Ellis"


Hello Mr. Sloan,

It has been a while since we’ve collaborated on your classroom research on SQ, in Vallejo . I would like to say thank you for including me in your letter to several school administrators, in the Vallejo Unified Schools. It was a spirited letter about Mr. Phillip Shelley skills as a classroom teacher and to be included was an honor.

Currently, I’m employed by LifeLong Medical Care as a Human Resources Generalist focusing on employee relations and have been challenged with difficult situations and individuals. Your published works and research may be instrumental to the organization’s needs and wants. Mr. Sloan, working with you and your research was a humbling experience which provided me unique skills as a HR practitioner. It would be an honor to reconnect with you to share experiences, knowledge, and ideas around SQ, Emotional Intelligence, and social skills.

Furthermore, one day, soon, I will turn a chapter of my life towards the field of education.

Thanks for all your works and research.

Marsh Ellis

Sloan replies: Marsh, It's good to hear that you want to reconnect. Your picture and work with me on SQ remains a page on my website - at That page featuring you is also a link on my History of Social Quotient - at

You write that my research might be helpful to LifeLong Medical Care's needs. Perhaps you could elaborate on that, giving an example or two based on your work there. I would be happy to assist or make suggestions for you.

At present I am renting a nice place in Healdsburg CA. Before I head out to Egypt and Israel on December 5 for several months, you would be welcome to visit. We could share thoughts on social skills and related matters. These days I am in the USA just several months a year, usually at Lake Tahoe.

It is good to hear that you are still thinking of shifting to a career in education. I've always thought you would be a positive force there, and enjoy it as well. Education needs new ideas, like ours, that students can benefit from training in social skills. Research indicates that a person can improve his SQ, but that improving one's IQ is nearly impossible. Since success is built on both areas (along with ambition and energy) - why not have public schools teach in these areas as well as the traditional academics?

Let me know how I can be of help, Van Sloan

Sloan responds again, following a phone conversation: Marsh, It was enjoyable talking with you yesterday. We discussed two approaches that you might recommend to your medical organization. They would provide a way of measuring the interpersonal skills of your employees:

1. A written test that employees would take, similar to the one used to screen the social skills of applicants to most medical and dental schools in Australia. Sample questions from that test and related information are at my

2. A survey of your employees where peers would grade each of their peers (using A to E marks) on questions like:

- How would you rank employee X on technical skills?

- How would you rank employee X on interpersonal skills?

It would be best if an outside organization took the survey and computed the results. The markers should create a spread in their ratings so that meaningful, fair results can be generated. Personnel firms that do 360 type ratings should be able to help you in this.

You describe "difficult situations and individuals" on interpersonal relations in your professional staff. I have found that before corrective steps are effective, low social skills individuals have to recognize that they have a problem. The two approaches above would provide objective measures that their performance is below par. Then one can tailor useful remediations to improve performance (as in listening skills, empathy, happy attitude, etc.).

Hope this helps!

Van Sloan

developer of the Social Quotient measure. Info at

Re: Iq

Friday, November 13, 2009 8:51 PM

From: "Michael Spinks"

To: "Van Sloan"

If higher educated people tend to have a higher Iq, and also have less children, then the average is skewed toward people who have lower iqs having more children.

Sloan replies: Michael, many people have worried that large families are more common among the lower classes - speculating that average IQ's will drop. But that seems not to have happened. Average IQ's in the USA and other wealthy countries are rising. Obamas and other talented leaders can come from all classes.

Wonderful Site

Thursday, October 29, 2009 5:22 PM

From: "Ernie"


Sir, Thank you for providing such a wonderful site. I just found it a few days ago so it will take me a long time to digest its contents -- if ever. Anyway, I noticed that you gave no notice to one factor that I noticed in my many years of living (some 87 years) and that is strong religious beliefs seem to impair the ability to use logical thinking by those possessing those beliefs. It's as if they used logic in their thinking, it would jeopardize their beliefs. No logic and their beliefs are intact. Start thinking logically and they start questioning their beliefs. I wondered if you had discovered anything like this in your studies.

Thank you again, you are a genius,

Ernie Herr

Sloan replies: Ernie, Thank you for your gracious compliments. I don't feel like a genius, but do seem to have a knack for explaining in ordinary language what the majority of social scientists believe. Sometimes that stirs up controversy, as with politically unpopular findings like the differences in IQ among nations and races.

Religion is another hot button topic. But until its interaction with other social matters is better understood, I prefer not to speculate on it in my website. Consider two quotes that get people riled up:

1. "Religion is the opiate of the people" - one of the most frequently quoted statements of communist writer Karl Marx. According to Marx, religion is an expression of material realities and economic injustice. Thus, problems in religion are ultimately problems in society. Religion is not the disease, but merely a symptom. It is used by oppressors to make people feel better about the distress they experience due to being poor and exploited.

2. Candidate Obama outlined challenges facing his presidential bid in the primaries of Pennsylvania and Indiana, particularly winning over white working-class voters who had fallen through the cracks in the last two presidential administrations: “So it’s not surprising then that they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren’t like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations,” Mr. Obama said. The remarks touched off a torrent of criticism from Mrs. Clinton, Mr. McCain and a string of Republican activists and party officials, all of whom accused Mr. Obama of elitism and belittling the working class.

The greater appeal of religion to the middle and lower classes remains a hot topic, as candidate Obama found out. Wealthy communities worldwide generally have fewer places of worship, or at least fewer that are well attended. Most high income countries, like Japan and in Western Europe, have declining attendance at religious services. Not well understood is why the United States is an exception to this wealth pattern. Similarly, there is not a satisfactory explanation of why wealthy communities worldwide in the past built so many churches and temples - quite different from today.

Religion and Logical Thinking

A review of the literature indicates that logic plays a part in most religions. The whole body of Christian ethics can be considered a logic system for how people can get along better with others. In fact, I believe that Jesus' washing the feet of his disciples was a revolutionary act of a leader acting as a servant of the people – a focal point in history of politics.

But Christianity and most other religions have much mythical or right brain aspects that do not succumb to logical analysis. For more on this, here is one reasonable analysis:

Right Brain and Left Brain Religions

Before we dive into Mysticism proper, lets explore how the human brain/mind works. This is important to know because some religions understand God in a logical way and other religions are more intuitive or inspired in their knowledge. This will especially help us to understand God from a Buddhist or Taoist perspective. The left brain is a world of business, logic, reason and of practicality. The right brain is a world of art, emotion, intuition and of feelings. The left brain requires logical, linear, factual data to be satisfied. The right brain is more comfortable with leaps of faith, inspiration and intuition. To better understand God and how God is communicated it helps to understand that the brain/mind operates and functions on these two levels and through both we can achieve a more complete understanding of God. The best example of a right brain religion is Tao. Tao is nonsense to the logical western mind. Yet Taoism is a great sourse of mystic knowledge. Judaism is an example of a left brain religion. Ten commandments, Holy Days, clean and unclean meats, etc... The logical mind understands rules and regulations and Judaism is a very structured ordered and logical religion. All of the other religions are somewhere in between with Islam being almost as logical as Judaism and Buddhism almost as right brained as Tao. Hinduism and Christianity are balanced in the middle with Hinduism slightly more right brained and Christianity slightly more logical. from

Food for thought!

Ernie replies: Thank you for such an informative reply and I can find nothing to disagree with in what you say. My years of experience on this earth have made me very cautious when discussing religion or politics or anything else that seems to find its home on the right side of the brain. I haven't read much as yet of this division of activities in the brain so I have additional reading to pursue. I will explore the sites you mention and will continue research in your fine material. Please keep dispensing your fine wisdom.

Subject: Likeability - SQ inventory

From: Megan Johntz


Date: Tuesday, May 26, 2009, 8:04 AM

Mr. Sloan-

My name is Megan Johntz and I speak on Likeability. I ran across your site today and liked your inventory very much. I have an upcoming speech in Orlando , and am curious if you ever allow your inventory to be used in that type of setting. When you get a free moment, I’d love information on any options.

Best regards,

Megan Johntz, M.S., C.C.Ht., N.C.C., L.P.C.

Psychotherapist . Trainer . Speaker

Sloan replies: Megan, yes, I do allow the information in my site to be used by others. My main concerns are that the information be used accurately and that credit be given (mention of the page(s) in my site that are being referenced.) I would welcome receiving a copy of such credit, along with audience reactions.

You do not indicate which of my website pages you want to use. I assume it is the male and female likablility self tests, such as at A version of these questions was published by SELF magazine. An audience should know that my questions were not just made up, but were the results of mathematical correlations between self-marked characteristics and the likeability of those individuals as assessed by their peers. That is why males and females have different tests. Their correlations were slightly different. I may not agree that fat females are more unlikeable than fat men - but society does!

Let me know if you have other questions. I would welcome learning more about how you you would like to use the results of my research.


Van Sloan

Megan replies: Thanks for allowing others to benefit from your work. I will most happily give credit in the form of your name and contact info at the bottom of the inventory, as well as on the PowerPoint slide and in my speech. It would be tragically ironic to preach likeability and then steal someone else’s research, wouldn’t it?!

I can email the PowerPoint slide if you’d like, and let you know how it was received by the audience. They estimate a little under a thousand in this audience.

Thanks for your generosity, Megan

Sloan replies again: Megan, let me suggest that you reference my webpage at the bottom of your inventory and in your speech. It gives my contact information at the bottom, as well as summarizing my research findings in this area. It is interesting that the results on likeability traits were quite similar in most high school classrooms. The one exception was the trait of courtesy, which varied between upper and lower class students.

From: deniz selcuk

Subject: social skills


Date: Thursday, April 23, 2009, 1:26 PM

Dear Sloan,

I visited your web site. Some of the findings are exaggerated I believe. You state that SQ predicts income twice as much as IQ. What is defined as social is agreeableness and – or extraversion. They are 2 traits of the big 5. I don’t find the claim scientific and serious. I also wondered what makes the nations and the individuals successful. I believe 3 things play the most important role. They are IQ (vocabulary and math, not much spatial), creativity and ambition (motivation). The Millionaire Mind (T. Stanley) says that the millionaires don’t have high IQ but they are ambitious and creative in entrepreneurship. The English speaking countries also have an advantage. I don’t believe the social skills play a major role.

Sloan replies: Deniz, Perhaps some of the pages you saw on my website were not clear. Let me refer you to my pages with links to the success research of recognized experts: - where I write: "Thus an individual's success likely develops from: 1/3 IQ, 1/3 social skills, 1/3 ambition." That page also includes conclusions from Stanley's "Milliionaire Mind."

See also for research links.

On national success, IQ plays a major role. You are likely right that social skills seem to matter much less than with individual success. The same appears to be the case with ambition. Instead, economic competitiveness and corruption appear to be important factors in a nation's success. See my

Other factors like creativity and an individual's energy can play a role in success. But in my opinion, the research done to date in these areas is not conclusive.

Subject: The best prediction of creativity?

From: Deniz Selcuk

To: (including Van Sloan)

Date: Sunday, March 8, 2009, 1:26 PM

I want to ask something. What is the best prediction of creativity? The openness index, the Torrance test, the bipolar disorders? Which one? The bipolar disorders are seen mostly among the writers, poets and the artists linked to creativity. Go poses a daunting challenge to computer programmers.[71] While the strongest computer chess hardware has defeated top players (for example, the IBM computer Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov, the then-world champion in 1997), the best Go programs only manage to reach an intermediate amateur level. On the small 9×9 board, the computer fares better, and some programs have reached a strong amateur level. Human players generally achieve an intermediate amateur level by studying and playing regularly for a few years. Many in the field of artificial intelligence consider Go to require more elements that mimic human thought than chess.[72] Torrance (1963) has found that creative boys possess more feminine characteristics than their peers, and that creative girls are perceived as more masculine than other girls. Torrance’s (1981) 22-year longitudinal study, Yamada and Tam’s (1996) reanalysis, and Plucker’s (1999) reanalysis of the Torrance’s data have concluded that the creative index is the best predictor for adult creative achievement. Plucker (1999) found that adult creative achievement is explained by the TTCT score about 50%, which is three times larger than that of IQ score; this is contrary to Baer’s (1994) opinion that the TTCT scores might not provide more information than the intelligence test scores already did. A study of 425 British men and women found the creative types averaged between four and ten partners, while the less creative folks had typically had three. The more creative the study participants, the more partners they'd had.

Sloan responds: Deniz, Using the information you highlight from it appears that the Torrance test is the most valid predictor of creativity yet developed. I believe that useful creativity requires a reasonable intelligence.

Because intelligence is made up of verbal and math skills, it is likely that racial differences in such skills affect levels of creativity. Thus, I would suspect that East Asian science creativity is relatively high, while Jewish creativity in writing is notable. Blacks do well in fields that reward improvisation skills (as jazz and basketball) - so their creativity may be high in such areas.

One measure of outstanding creativity is in Nobel prize awards. While many of the prizes are in science, the awards in literature and economics reflect non-science skills. A comparison of the ethnic backgrounds of Nobel laureates may shed some light on the racial basis of different kinds of creativity.

Theories on creativity or other aspects of social science can be interesting. But I believe that data, such as provided by the longitudinal studies of Torrance tests, provide us the most useful information for understanding.

Deniz writes again on IQ's

Lynn said that the East Asians in the East Asia had a mean IQ of 105 but the East Asians in America (Chinese, Koreans and Japanese) had a mean IQ of 101. That is exactly what he says because mostly the chidren of the workers migrated to the US. As far as I know the Asians make up 4.2 percent of the population in America but this number also includes the people from Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam, Middle East etc who have low IQ. As to the Indians they make up 0.5 percent of the population. They are either very highly selected from India or mostly from the Brahmins and the Parsees (probably both). According to the data in Arthur Hu's web site they compete with the Jews in the SAT scores far ahead of the East Asians and the whites. I don't know where you read that they have 118 IQ but this is extremely ridiculous (I don't want to go through it) but the very dark skinned Dravidian speaking Brahmins from the South India (Bangalore) are very good at software and math. Maybe Steve Sailor can answer you about what you wonder. He knows much better about India. Though there is almost no data about the smart races in India the high castes (at least the Dravidian Brahmins, if not all) are very likely to be better in math than the Jews. You are right. They are also South Asians but they make up only 0.5 percent of the population.


assertions on race and IQ

Friday, January 30, 2009 8:39 AM
From: "Samantha Warren"

I do not normally respond or comment on articles such as the one found here, however I found the overly simplistic explanations for the averages of IQ based on race troubling.  There are far more factors involved than I believe anyone has taken the time to study.
Being a person of mixed race (Irish-America and African-American) I have observed a broad spectrum of ability within my own family.  Interestingly my father(African-America) and his family tend to be very intelligent.  Although I am not aware of most of their IQ scores I do know that mine is 137 and two of my cousins are in the 150 range. Being a middle class family I believe accounts more for this than race.  People seem to be amazed in the south where my fathers family is from, that they are articulate.  As if that is not possible for anyone with dark skin.  As a matter of fact, many of my fathers generation actually "dumbed themselves down" so as not to draw attention of those that would feel threatened by an intelligent black man.
On the other hand my mother's (Irish-American) family was very poor.  Of interest is that while her Grandparents who immigrated from Ireland  were of some means and owned stables of race horses, her parents squandered any money they had and ended up living in "the projects".  They are not known to be very smart, but they are pretty good entrepreneurs.  They do however fit what I find to be most peoples stereotype of the Irish. 
I always find the generalizations about race and IQ,  propensity towards criminal behavior, etc very interesting in light of a family that does not meet these stereotypes. 
I could go on and on, but must be going.  Thank you for the interesting content on your site.

 Sloan replies: Samantha, thanks for your comment about the "interesting content" on my site.  You raise the important issue of stereotyping based on group averages.  Unfortunately I know of no workable system that counteracts such biases.  Exceptional individuals, like your father's family, tend to be judged by group averages.  Even teachers subconsciously set expectation for students based on IQ group averages.  Hopefully the election of President Obama will enable high IQ Blacks worldwide to escape some stereotypes. 

Nevertheless, I feel that to pretend that group average IQ's do not exist, or to explain them away with unsubstantianted or anecdotal evidence does more harm than good.  As I have explained at the bottom of my page, the popular notion that IQ group differences are due to social factors causes unreasonable expectations for teachers of inner city youth.  A similar problem exists with the expectation that girls ought do as well as boys in advanced math and science.

Re:  social quotinent questionnaire reliability

Sunday, January 4, 2009 12:02 AM
dear van sloan,
still remember me halina?  the one who intrested to use your questionnaire in my research.  i would like to ask about the realibiality and liabilty of the questionaire.  my supervisor ask me to ask you more detail.  isthere any article or thesis related to the questionnaire that i can refer to. i really hope that you can help me.all your effort in helping me only can be paid by God.hope to hear from you soon.
Sloan replies, Halina, for questions on the reliability and related matters on Social Quotient, you can go to  and check out the pages in the Range and calculation of SQ scores  section.  That page is an overview of how SQ is calculated and how it relates to the traits in the simple male and female tests.  Your professor should find the SQ reliability page as answering many of his questions.  I do not know what you mean by liability.   Some students who are given low SQ scores by their classmates can become upset, but they do not sue the school for revealing the truth to them.  You might be interested in the SQ validity page, which shows how SQ results compare with other assessments of a person's social skills, particularly teacher's opinions of students.  

IQ and voter trends

Tuesday, December 2, 2008 11:33 PM
How would you interpret the plot on that shows a correlation between the percentage of voters in a state that vote democrat and IQ?
Sloan replies: Mark, your graph appears to be accurate and similar to state IQ/ vote results in the 2004 election.  Others commenting on that earlier result pointed out that the racial makeup of US states vary, likely causing much of the state IQ differences.  One particularly thoughtful analysis came from a Chicago MBA student, shown at
My interpretation of state IQ/ vote results is that people tend to vote for their self interests.  Voters with below average incomes and IQ's (including most minorities) typically favor Democrats who propose increased spending for social services, funded by additional taxes on the wealthy.  Republican candidates generally opposes higher taxes.  
In the early 1960s, Bill Buckley famously observed that he would rather be governed by the first two thousand names in the Boston phone book than the two thousand faculty members of Harvard University.  I agree.  High IQ is associated with higher incomes, but it does not necessarily mean smart political leadership. 
I enjoyed reading the information in your sites, particularly   Americans generally believe in science, but occasionally resist its findings.  The existence of a personal God is one case (see my ) and the ethnic group differences in IQ is another (see my ).  Discussion forums such as yours can foster better understanding in such cases. 

Mark replies:  I agree with your assessments on the topics of IQ, God, and race.  I find it
particularly annoying how people routinely ignore the facts to believe crazy
things.  It seems that religion and political philosophy are equally blinding
when it comes to seeking the truth.

I would like to post your email on my site, along with all of your links.  Any

Sloan responds again: Mark, I would be pleased if you posted my email and links on your site.  The approach you take  is excellent, and it would be useful if university students discussed the ideas in your site.  While physical sciences teachers would readily support your points on the scientific method, it would be interesting to see how other professors would feel. At Princeton, I remember an economics professor (who later became University president) who promoted liberal policies in his classes as desirable economics.  

At the other end of the political spectrum, I have also been disappointed by business leaders who unabashedly promote their company's self-interest, even when it conflicts with the public's general good.  Drug companies are a glaring example.  My overall point is that citizens should not blindly follow what their intellectual, business, and political leaders promote.  They should think for themselves, using the tools you suggest.

intelligence question

Tuesday, November 25, 2008 8:32 PM
Prof. Sloan,  I recently listened to a radio program on This American Life that profiled a charter school in a poor and predominantly black neighborhood in Harlem.  The charter school was founded on the principle that poor--and incidentally black--children were not receiving the same mental stimulation in early childhood as their upper class--and often non-black--peers elsewhere.  As one would expect, parents and children that passed through this charter school experienced dramatic improvement in parenting skills and academic performance.

My question to you is:  How can you omit the influence of culture and class as a determinant of how one will do on a standardized and culturally biased test of intelligence?  Can one rightfully draw any useful conclusions from a crude ranking of IQ scores without looking at culture and class influences?

Sloan replies: d..d., my website presents the majority scientific opinion on IQ and related matters.  That is: Measures of intelligence like SAT tests show consistent group differences that are not explainable by culture or class differences.  Your email shows a different view, similar to the majority political opinion.  But the evidence does not support the popular idea that, with effort, IQ can be noticeably changed.   Early Childhood Education programs do give a boost to school performance of youngsters.  But the boost is only temporary.  See my page.  See also: - which shows the research on identical twins raised by different families.  Their different environments cause only a 10-20% difference in their IQ's. 
It seems that IQ is mostly a genetically determined characteristic, like height.  In both traits, children end up similar to their parents, but with a range of variation.  Both traits are affected negatively by poor nutrition in youth.  That is a significant problem in parts of Africa, but not in the USA.  Few believe that an exercise program will affect a youngster's eventual height.  Similarly, good parenting does not seem to affect IQ as much as many would like to think.  But it can affect a student's attitude toward education and likelihood to graduate from high school.  Success in school is based on more than IQ.  On average, Latinos have higher IQ's than Black Americans, yet Latinos have lower graduation rates. 
A further note - I strongly support charter shools and other educational options for parent choice.  As a school administrator for many years, I saw the negative effects of an education monoploy and strong teacher unions.  But while competition can greatly improve American schools, it is harmful to have unrealistic expectations.  We can improve how much our students learn, but we should not expect that schools can raise IQ's any more than they can raise average heights.

likable person

From: will will will , I will not tell <>
Date: Tuesday, October 28, 2008, 7:29 AM

hello ,  I want to write a report about how to be a likable person what can I write about?

Sloan replies:  error girl, for your report, let me suggest that you click on  and look at its female traits that affect being a likable person.  Having an upbeat, positive attitude and lots of smiles helps.  Being very fat or having strong opinions hurt your chances for being likable.  For girls in all types of high schools, these traits were found to be significant when classmates rated girls for their likability.

African IQ Analysis

Wednesday, September 24, 2008 9:42 AM
I read through your analysis and I am impressed by the level of research on African intellect.  The question you were unable to answer is "what distractions would have resulted into the Africans low ability to reason abstractly?".  Since reasonable ability is connected to security, I would love to relate with you my ongoing research on security and academic performance in Nigeria.
Adebayo T. A. 

Sloan replies: Adebayo,  the only distraction lowering Africans' reasoning ability (IQ) that has been clearly identified is poor nutrition up to age five.  Richard Lynn, a leading authority on IQ differences around the world, has written a new book: Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis .  A well-received review of this book at includes:

"Lynn...concludes that the East Asians-Chinese, Japanese and Koreans-have the highest mean IQ at 105. Europeans follow with an IQ of 100. Some ways below these are the Inuit or Eskimos (IQ 91), South East Asians (IQ 87), Native American Indians (IQ 87), Pacific Islanders (IQ 85), South Asians and North Africans (IQ 84). Well below these come the sub-Saharan Africans (IQ 67) followed by the Australian Aborigines (IQ 62).
The lowest scoring are the Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert together with the Pygmies of the Congo rain forests (IQ 54)."
The reviewer goes on to comment: "These findings in Lynn's latest book have profound geopolitical significance. They imply it may simply not be possible to transmit Western-style democratic and economic systems to the populations of Latin America and Moslem North Africa and the Middle East, let alone sub-Saharan Africa."  
Personally, I worry that while average African IQ is low, the normal curve distributions of IQ means that there will always be a small but powerful number of smart Africans. Unfortunately, many use their high IQ for personal gain, often with corrupt practices.  So do some smart people in all nations.  But in Europe and North America, there are plenty of other high IQ individuals in the press, in legislatures, and other institutions who act against the intrigues of the greedy.  Africa lacks that countervailing force.  So ineffective governance and poor security for the average African is the result.  This conclusion might relate to your research on security and academic performance.  I would welcome learning more about your work.

Adebayo replies: Thanks for your letter. I believe that anxiety and worry are part of the major factors that lower abstract reasoning ability. Let me give a small breakdown of the normal Lagosian(residents of Lagos) life in Nigeria.

- He is worried about security of his life, his spouse/siblings and that of his properties at home since Nigerian Police and Armed robbers actions cannot be predicted. Most Nigerians are trustworthy but the Police, armed forces and the judiciary and majority of those in authority are not so. Hence, average Nigerian is always worried about Police brutality, and if possible, robbery.

-Near his home, he is worried about the possibility of public electricity failure.

By the time he got home he must be totally wearied. He is not interested in deep thinking but how to eat and sleep. All his plan to work at home is defeated due to lack of good governance. If he is an higher institutional student, he is worried about cult activities since at least about 10% of the students are in the cults taking arms in order to protect themselves and terrorize others due to Police inabilities. In the night, he is not totally relaxed as he may be worried (if he is not a practicing christian) about possibility of burglars and armed robbers attacks. The second morning is a great relieve to him but it is also the beginning of worried about when he will be able to get to the office considering the chaotic transport system in Lagos area.

Interested in social quotinent questionnaire
Thursday, September 18, 2008 11:47 AM
i'm halina a master student in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn (UTHM). I have gone through your website and find out about social quotinent questionnaire.i find it intresting and relate to my research. i want to test group of student social skills who take technical communication subject.
Sloan replies: Halina, you are free to use the male and female questionaires you likely got to by clicking the top of the first page of  They are based on the SQ traits identified in research on   Because you are doing research with a group, you also might want to try the SQ questionnaire at  While I am no longer processing these forms by computer to get individual SQ scores, it may be interesting for your students to find out how many social skills A's and E's they received from their peers. 
Halina replies: hi van, thanks for your help.i'm very grateful for your help.i cannot wait to try it.thanks again.hope that you can guide me with your knowledge in social skills.i'm very grateful to know people like you.thanks again.

From: Yuval Levental

Subject: Sorry, but environment does have an impact on a person's IQ.


Date: Friday, August 22, 2008, 9:13 AM

According to this article (, right from the New York Times, IQ does depend on a family's economic level. This article says that the problem with most research studies is that the twins/families that are being studied come from middle-class to upper-class backgrounds. It shows that in poor backgrounds, there is a huge environment impact. I would like for you to read it thoroughly and tell me what you think about it. Also, here's another associated article (

Please don't reject these articles immediately.

Thanks, SuperYuval

Sloan replies: Yuval,thanks for alerting me about the NY Times articles on IQ research. It is well accepted that poor nuturiton up to age 5 can have a negative effect on IQ, and that may account for some of the low performance of adopted children raised by poor families.

When more research confirms that other factors affect IQ, I will change my website to reflect generally accepted scientific opinion. One reason for not doing this sooner is the unreasonable expectations that it places on educators in low income areas. Many people think that if only there were more Headstart or that teachers did a better job, there would be much less difference in IQ's and school achievement among different neighborhoods. That may be an unrealistic expectation.

Yuval replies: There is a study that says that training working memory can significantly increase iq ( ) I bought a version of the dual n-back last month on and it is amazing.  

Also, I like the idea of the SQ. I myself have an amazing IQ (158 SD=15) from an official test at the age of 7, but shamefully, I have moderate ambition and a low SQ. I also think there is a cognitive aspect to this SQ....
Also, I'm afraid I noticed a few contradictions:

On the HeadStart page, you talk about how the gains fade into the first few years of elementary school. Yet, you stress that IQ is fixed after age 5. Also, on this page, you say that IQ's are 70% genetic, which means that there should be a possible significant amount of improvement, but you then say that they are extremely stable.

Also, on your IQ differences page, you talk about how IQ alone has selected people over time, but you leave out ambition and social skills in these selections, which you say are more important. In "Many European countries have IQ's about as high as China and nearby Asian countries", this doesn't explain why the avg. hispanic IQ is lower than the Avg. european/Asian IQ's.

Sloan responds again:  Yuval, you continue to raise interesting points. As a general response, I tend not to believe something on the internet unless it is confirmed by several reputable sources and is backed by solid data.  For example, the site you mentioned features this chart:  Susanne Jaeggi Martin Buschkuehl Perrig PNAS April 2008 Bern Michigan increase intelligence and brain power by training working memory
These convenient, round percentages of 10, 25, and 50% s look much more like advertising claims than hard data from careful research.  In any case, memory training seems far away from problem solving ability.  Yet, people who believe that IQ is very important will grasp for opportunities to improve it.  Usually they end up just improving a related skill that some claimed IQ test is measuring.
I'm glad that you like my concept of SQ (Social Quotient).  My studies show that it and Ambition are more important to success than just IQ.  Recently, I have added the quality of being Energetic as also important in one's success.  Information on my high school, college, and business school classmates (plus my knowledge of their energy levels) has convinced me that one's general energy plays a role in success.  Secondly, successful people I have met seem to be more energetic that normal. There is good data that US cities with the most energetic people also often have the highest incomes.  You can check it out in my new web page
On your comments on my other website pages, I stand by what is written in them.  In Head Start, the initial gains are in school grades, not in IQ.  Memory training, attentive behavior in class, and other non-IQ factors can affect grades.  On the 30% non-genetic components of IQ, little good research has been done, outside of nutrition up to age 5.
On IQ differences around the world, it seems that genetics also are key factors.  Some experts believe that humans who adapted to colder climates like Europe and northern China had to use their brains more to survive.  Their lower IQ clan members who could not adapt just died out, leading to higher IQ clans.  It's interesting speculation, but little proof has been offered.   On Latin American IQ's, I do have a large web page and much data at:   Basically, it shows that the more European a Latin population is, the higher is that country's IQ and income.  But the recent increasing income of Mexico, as compared to Argentina, is likely due to differences in the quality of governments, not IQ.

SQ tests request

Wednesday, June 25, 2008 8:06 PM

From: "norawan bhuripun"


Dear Mr. Van Sloan,

I am a postgraduate student in the department of Developmental Psychology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. I am very interested in SQ related matters and thinking about doing a thesis on "SQ and Career success of Music Artists". I have read some articles and information about SQ on and found some tests which I understood that they are simplified versions of the SQ tests (i.e. and

So I was wondering, do you have the full or extended versions of those forms?

And if you do would you please allow me to use them as part of my thesis, I would really appreciate that. Any words of advice would be great. What I need are SQ tests, and how to interpret the results including the reliability rate of the tests.

Looking forward to hear from you

Sincerely, Norawan B. (OFF)

Sloan replies: Norawan, I would like to help with your thesis plans. Are you thinking of having music artists fill out SQ tests? If so, their reliabilty, as with all self-scored tests, depends on the honesty of the marking individuals. The more reliable SQ tests are scored by groups who know each other fairly well, as a high school classroom.

To get an understanding of the SQ process, its reliability, and its link to the simplified tests you mention, let me suggest you go to my Click near the bottom on Range and calculation of SQ scores and then read its links and the following pages in the outline. You will see that the simplified tests for male and female are taken from the results of side B of the main SQ test. I think those simplified tests should provide fairly reliable results for you - IF you emphasise that the test takers be honest and that you will only be writing about group, not individual results.

Let me know what other questions you have.

From: Quinton Lester

Subject: IQ


Date: Monday, June 23, 2008, 9:11 AM

Hi, I wonder if you can help me. I have tested myself on various IQ test on the web and I score between 131 and 145. I live in South Africa and find myself extremely frustrated with the politics and working opportunities here. My question is this, are there companies out there that hire on IQ tests as I only have a diploma that probably will not get recognized anywhere else anyway?

Kind regards, Quinton Lester

Sloan replies: Quinton, I don't know any organizations that hire on IQ alone. They generally seek other qualities like experience, enthusiasm for the tasks, and ambition/ drive. The latter can be indicated by the completion of educational degrees. When IQ is an important criteria for a job, firms sometimes give IQ-type tests as part of the interview process. They usually do not rely on scores you would report.

Let me suggest that you figure out which industries or types of jobs grab your interest. If you cannot get the exact job you seek, offer to work as an intern, to show what you can do. Your enthusiasm will likely get your foot in the door. Good luck!

Re: Israeli IQ

Wednesday, June 11, 2008 11:01 AM



Hello Sloan

I came across your site (, and I wish to add a few things, that may or may not help you understand the different IQ scores between American/European and Israeli Ashkenazis, as well as suggestions as to why ethnic-based IQ test aren't as credible as they seem. I have very little knowledge in genetic studies, anthropology or psychology. I'm talking out of my own experience and general knowledge. I'm 19 years old, Israeli. of Ashkenazi and Sephardic heritage.

First of all, A general definition:

Ashkenazi Jews - Yiddish speaking Jews from Europe (excluding Southern Europe), and the non-European western world. Not every European Jew is an Ashkenazi Jew (though most of the European Jewry back in the day were)

*predoninately Poland, Eastern Europe, Germany

Sephardic Jews - (the wider definition) - Jews from North Africa, Middle East, the Balkans, Turkey, most of modern day French Jews, and other parts of Asia

*predominately Morocco, Iraq, Yemen & Iraq

#1-Jews of full or partial Sephardic background are mistaken by society for being Ashkenazis, or present themselves as ones. This characterizes the following groups

1a: Jews of mixed heritage. Intermarriages are very common these days. Many of them often choose to embrace only their Ashkenazi heritage (b/c of social class, old stereotypes etc.) and present themselves as ones, even if they're only 1/2 or 1/4 Ashkenazis.

1b: Jews of Sephardic-European/Soviet heritage (The Balkans, Turkey, Asian Soviet Republics) Often are sometimes labeled as Ashkenazis.

1c: ~950,000 migrants from the USSR came to Israel from 1990 till this day. Intermarriages between Ashkenazis and non-Jewish Latvians, Russians and Ukrainians were quite common in the USSR. 'Half' Jews from the integrated quite well into the Israeli society, so many of them consider themselves to be ethnic Ashkenazis (though they are very connected to the Russian culture), even in cases where one has only a Jewish grandparent.

#2-The Dominant Israeli-Ashkenazi groups are the least successful ones (in comparison) – Especially Romanian Jews, but also, to some degree, Russian and Ukrainian Jews. They were stereotyped in the past as poor and less educated, as opposed to Jews from Germany, Poland (not all), Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Austria (who then made up the majority of the European Ashkenazi Jewry), and indeed, Their achievements pale in comparison to the others. In today's Israel the Polish-Jewish community is relatively big (~350,000), and not surprisingly is the one that keeps the country from falling apart, but the other ones are very small (keep that in mind, more Romanian Jews immigrated to Israel since 1948 than Polish, German, Austrian and Hungarian Jews combined)

#3-The Israeli culture/mentality is becoming more and more Middle Eastern.

-Guilt over the supposed discrimination of Sephardic Jews in the 1950's had led the mainstream music and TV prefer the Arabic/Middle Eastern music and culture, as a way to compensate the community.

-The increasing numbers of the Sephardic Jews.

What was once considered to be the norm among teens from European-Jewish families - embracing European culture, values of hard work, respect and dignity, the importance of education - is now rejected for being square and arrogant. In small towns with a Sephardic/Black Ethiopian nature, 'Ashkenazi' is often a curse word.

- - - -

The Israeli census doesn't hold data for 3rd+ generation Israeli Jews, so there's no way to know for sure how many Ashkenazis, Sephardic and 'mixed' Jews there are. My everyday life experience gives me the impression there are more Sephardics than Ashkenazis in Israel. Excluding northern rural settlements, I believe most Israeli cities/villages hold a Sephardic majority. I believe that in the future, the Sephardic, with the Arabs, will make up the overwhelming majority of Israeli population due to:

-Immigration of Ethiopian Jews + high fertility rates.

-Emigration of Russian Jews back to Russia, or to Canada.

-Emigration of Israeli born Ashkenazis to the EU countries and North America.

-High fertility rates for the religious Sephardic community.

-High fertility rates for the Arab community.

Well, that's prety much all. Thank you for reading!

Sloan replies: Newxfoll, thanks for your thoughts on Israeli IQ. Your points may explain why it is not as high as some might think, based on the IQ's of Eastern European Jews in the United States. I have added a link to your thoughts at the bottom of my webpage. That probably was what your link was based on.

Date: Sun, 20 Apr 2008 10:16:25 -0700 (PDT)

From: ""Dreamer"

Subject: iq article


Gosh I hope this does not mean you are a racist!

You do not say what instruments were used to assess IQ. Was the same instrument used for all? In the states, the Weschler is the most commonly used, with a mean of 100. It is my understanding that the Stanford-Binet is more commonly used in Europe, with a mean of 90. You have also not addressed language and cultural bias of tests. Were the tests used normed and standardized on the population on which they were administered?

I do not personally believe that IQ is inherited, at least not to a great degree. For some it appears to be an accident of genes (as shown in identical twin studies), while for others it appears to be based upon environment. Exposure to a wide range of experiences that are tested surely has a great effect on scores.

If you look at families rather than twins, a wide range of scores can appear in children with the same parents raised in the same environment. In these cases, intelligence appears to be a toss of the dice.

I can trace successful people in my family back for 400 years on my mother's side. I have grandparents and great-grandparents who were college educated. Yet, my mother is no brain-trust. Her brother was brilliant. I have above average intelligence myself, and three of my four children are brilliant. The other is average. Of my seven grandchildren, three are brilliant. Two are too young still to tell. Same genes, same environment. Toss of the dice.

I do think that living conditions effect both physical and intellectual development. When looking at Europe, we must remember that some of those who are alive today, therefore probably in the test population, spent their early years in war-torn environments with a scarcity of proper food. This is also true in Ireland, where the current, affluent youth are one generation away from being barefoot. Just looking at the average heights attained now as opposed to in the past, gives a clue to this situation. Young people in developed countries have undoubtedly attained more of their genetic growth and intellect than their parents and grand parents.

Though your information is interesting, it could also nourish racist sentiments in those leaning that direction.

I would like to see you boost your information with more details and more insight into causes for differences rather than genes.

S. Roberts New Mexico

Sloan replies: No, I am not a racisit. But I think a better public understanding of how most scholars view IQ data will help in setting policies, such as in reasonable expectations for schools. The IQ data for countries vaires in quality. You can read how the authors assembled it at

You are right that the IQ of children in a family varies widely. We do not know the causes for that. The twins studies show that the effect of genetics in IQ is quite large. The only proven environmental effect on IQ is nutrition up to the age of five. Yes, I too wish there was more good data on causes of IQ differences. As it becomes availiable, I plan to add it to my website.

Date: Sat, 19 Apr 2008 21:05:41 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Cheryl Voelker"

Subject: Comment


Dear Mr. Van Sloan,

I would just like to thank you for all the work and research that you put into your website, it has much of the information I have searching for, all contained in one place. I previously had many theories dealing with much of the items presented, and having so much data in one spot is very helpful. You certainly have given me much to take into consideration. I'm not going to get into details or explain my views, has it would take too long and would be unnecesssary, but I generally agree with your theories (although some are, however, reworkings of other lesser known theories and ideals[not that that makes them any less true!] ). I would, though, like to add that although I understand the need for all humans to be treated equally, I do not think it's right that our society uses that as a reason to suppress rational truths in relation to genetics, as our society does with many other issues. Anyways, Thanks again.

Sloan replies: Cheryl, thanks for your supportive comments. I agree it is unfortunate that political correctness and other pressures sometimes prevents findings in the social sciences from being accepted as readily as in the physical sciences. Such reluctance to accept well-documented truths can hurt in setting realistic public policies (as in education and economic growth).

Date: Thu, 28 Feb 2008 00:49:32 -0800 (PST)

From: ""jay thompson"

Subject: Your IQ & political analysis


Hello, I thought it a bit interesting that you corrected a faulty analysis of IQ compared to election data. Are you implying that this is at all scientific? The IQ average of a state comes from a very large sample, but it is only a very narrow age bracket. Those in School who are being tested, most of whom probably are just a few months too young to be elegible to vote. The election was determined from a completely different sample of the population. Those who first were qualified to vote, (old enough and not a convicted felon), who second took the trouble get registered to vote, and thirdly took the trouble to go to the polls (or fill out an absentee ballat) to vote. We would assume that the smarter a person is the more likely they will take part in an election. So most of the lower inteligence scores are probably not voting sanyway.

So the sampling of the population which actually voted in the election vs. the sampling of the population which was used to compute the average IQ were almost categorically two different groups of people. So how can it have any relevence to who the various states elected?

Conclusion: Yours as well as the original comparison are both bad science.

Sloan replies: Jay, you are right that it probably is impossible to measure the IQ's of voters in each state. But my data for average IQ's in each state is probably reasonably accurate. Near the bottom of my web page showing how my data was calculated, a German professor notes that a later study based on elementary school test results came up with very similar IQ's by state. Since accurate IQ type test results are not available for most adults, this is probably as accurate as we are likely to get at present. You seem to feel that no data on a subject is better than incomplete or partially inaccurate data. I disagree. South Carolina, which scored quite low in IQ, has been motivated to put more money and emphasis on a good primary education for its children. Good leaders do not wait for ideal data or perfect science to take useful action.

Date: Mon, 28 Jan 2008 21:16:18 -0800 (PST)

From: ""Ben Magnie"

Subject: about IQ


hi there, i happen to stumble upon a site discussing IQ which i found interesting and thought id make a little comment about. Theres a part where it discusses that IQs for the most part dont change once physical adulthood is met. The point i thought you might find interesting though is that when i was about 15 i had an IQ of 117. I've taken a few since then and its steadily gone up and is currently at 146( im 22 now). Its hard for me to explain this without sounding like im proselytizing, because i dont mean to, but the sole reason my IQ has jumped so much is becuase of a process within scientology called auditing which basically eliminates all the "guck" if you will, from your mind via handling past painful moments and so increases your awareness and incidentally IQ. i know scores of people who've raised their IQ this way as much as i have. anyways, purely from a clinical point of view i thought you'd find this interesting.personally, i've always found it interesting to see it "concluded" that IQ is so unchangable. feel free to respond if you have something you'd like to ask or say of this, or not. :)

cheers, ben magnie

Sloan replies: Ben, the IQ changes you describe do not fit with scientific studies of how constant IQ is during a person's life after the age of five. Your data makes me wonder if all the IQ tests you have taken were valid measurements. Yes, sometimes problems in a person's mental or physical health at the time of testing can depress IQ results. If there truly was a way to increase one's IQ, the SAT test preparation companies like Kaplan would be using it. Their approach to raising SAT scores emphasizes test taking techniques, not raising a student's actual IQ.

Date: Tue, 25 Dec 2007 07:27:46 -0800

From: "Tom"


Subject: improving one's SQ

"Reorganizing a school to promote future success of students would place greater emphasis on non-IQ skills. Some medical schools are now using SQ type surveys as part of their instructional program." (Quote from Sloan's SQ website)

The term "social intelligence" sounds kind of nice, but what does it actually mean? In practice, it means networking, workplace politics, persuasion, and manipulation. It shouldn't come as a surprise that people who are good at those skills are the most successful. It's been that way throughout history and in all fields of human endeavor.

Schools clearly can teach these skills and they will help their graduates be more successful. But is that actually desirable? Do we want a nation of graduates who are successful not because they are the best at what they do, but because they are the best at networking and politics? Do you want to be operated upon by the brilliant surgeon who works 16h/day and happens to be a jerk at a dinner party, or do you want the surgeon who got his job because he plays golf with the CEO of the hospital?

It is probably a good idea to teach the brilliant surgeon enough social skills to get by in the world as it is. However, as a long term educational vision, this approach seems flawed to me. It seems to me that the real problem is not that IQ is overvalued in entrance requirements and academic evaluations, it is that it is undervalued in real life, and that's what we need to address.

Sloan replies: Tom, you look at social skills from an interesting, different point of view. My website focuses on what leads to success for individuals and for nations. We agree that social skills is important in such success. But you then ask if the world would be better off with more networking and politics. On balance, I think it would be.

Let's look at your case of the high IQ versus the more personable doctor. Yes, people do choose the doctor with more social skills the majority of the time. They value his or her positive attitude and communication skills, particularly listening. Very smart individuals often do not have the patience or ability to explain complex matters simply. Thus a person seeking a cure or a jury listening to legal arguments is typically better served by a professional who has good social skills, not just the highest IQ. So I cannot support your theory that the world would better off if more people selected the brightest individuals to serve them.

There is one big area where your idea of selecting high IQ individuals is gaining ground. Employers are more and more seeking out the highest IQ job applicants. These hires learn their jobs faster, are better at dealing with unexpected problems, and typically are promoted faster. If they have social skills problems, training can help them improve. But no training will improve one's IQ.

You may be thinking that social skills training might emphasize technical methods like networking and playing politics. Unfortunately, I am not aware of any training program with a testable, proven record of improving general social skills. My correlation of traits with high social skills individuals (at ) indicates that general happiness and having an upbeat outlook are significant. These may be fundamental in one's personality. I believe that techniques for manipulating others would be much less important in one's overall social skills ranking. Much more research is needed in this whole area. Thoughtful comments like yours are helpful!



Subject: IQ and Social Skills

Date: Sun, 25 Nov 2007 04:01:29 +0200

Hi, I find your web page extremely interesting Have you done any studies on the influence of physical attributes as a predictor of success I believe, this is only subjective, that people who are considered physically attractive would generally receive more favourable treatment generally with a resultant increased self esteem and probably superior social skills I would be interested in your opinion and any studies you may have conducted

Many thanks,

Sloan replies: My research findings at show that physical attractiveness has a slight positive effect on a man's Social Quotient, and for a woman less of an effect. This finding was obtained by asking high school students to rate themselves on a variety of characteristics, then correlating the match of those characteristics to their Social Quotient scores, as determined by their classmates. Much more important to being rated highly for SQ (or a person one would seek out for sales assistance in a store) are one's general happiness and having a positive, upbeat attitude. Most physical characteristics have little relation to SQ, except that long hair on a man and excess fat on a woman are undesirable.

In talking to students about the results (which varied little among communities of greatly varying social conditions), comments were made like "She thinks that she is so attractive, and doesn't have the time to listen to what others are interested in." Fortunately, it seems that one's social skills can be readily improved, while physical attractiveness and intelligence are much harder to improve. And those better social skills do translate into increased success. One firm promotes their training capabilities in this area, at

He writes again: Dear Mr. Van Sloan ,

Many thanks for your comprehensive reply to my query and do appreciate the fact that a person of your stature has replied personally Reading the information on you web site has given me an insight into something that has been a curiosity to me for some time. Given both my IQ and EQ I have underachieved and now am able to fill in the missing component which is ambition, I am intellectually ambitious rather than financially ambitious and further, whilst a professional person with a college degree, have hated the work I do and in fact every aspect of my profession. For this insight I must thank you and your tireless research

If I may impose further, I have a query as to the IQ of the average South African IQ, listed at 72, which approximates -2 standard deviations. I do not understand how it is possible to quantify the average IQ given the high percentage of illiterate people, who would not even be able to complete an IQ test. From everything I have read there is no correlation between education and IQ and an illiterate person deprived of education due to a former oppressive political regime may be highly intelligent. I would appreciate your comments and the manner in which this was quantified By deduction I gather you are associated with TalentSmart. I strongly believe that South Africa is ready and has the need for the expertise of TalentSmart with a captive market. There is a strong emphasis on psychometric test testing at the employment stage and it is my perception that thereafter little effort is expended to maximize the potential of employees. The market is extensive and would extend from government departments to the private sector with large, medium and small corporations as well as schools and colleges, in fact the possibilities seem unlimited. There is also the possibility of favorable taxation treatment and government has a strong initiative to improve and uplift previously disadvantaged people The exchange rate at approximately 7 units of our currency, the Rand , has both a positive and negative impact for TalentSmart. The initial establishment and marketing cost would extremely cost effective but any repatriation of profits would be adversely effected Should you be interested in investigating a Southern African business initiative, should you not already have a presence here, I would enthusiastically assist. Obviously there must be some financial reward for me, but it is something I feel is meaningful and evokes a passion. I believe I have been influenced by your research and see a way to combine my intellectual ambition with financial ambition Please revert to me on this matter

Kind regards

Sloan replies again: Your last email was most interesting. You are not alone in finding dissatisfaction in a prestige job. In New York and London, many skilled accountants, lawyers, and bankers feel the way you do. Their jobs are technically demanding, stressful, and require long hours - mainly to help the rich keep more of their money. The big pay for their work does not compensate for the feeling that what they are doing is not really worthwhile or fulfilling. You would like to help South Africans lead a better life, and I applaud your interest. Similarly, my whole Social Quotient website is designed to help discover what leads to success for individuals and nations. It has been more fulfilling than other work I have done. My site started with an approach to measuring a person's social skills that remains unique. Unlike all other psychological tests other than IQ, one cannot slant the answers to get a more desirable score. The SQ result one gets is determined solely by the marks that others give you.

The social and economic situation in South Africa make me think of similar challenges in Indonesia, which I have visited several times. Both countries are very interested in tourism to bring in revenue, and have much to offer visitors. In Indonesia, the island of Bali has been very successful in attracting tourists, while the rest of Indonesia has not. As a result, the average income in Bali is twice what the average person earns in neighboring Java. The real surprise is that the IQ and emphasis on education is much higher in Java than in any of the other Indonesian islands. Yet only Bali has that higher income than Java. Bali does have a different religion and culture that the rest of Indonesia. But I think the main reason why hotels are successful there is the natural friendliness of the people. The beaches and scenery in Java are just as good, but tourists enjoy being around the warm Balinese hotel staffs. (It is relevant that Carnival Cruise Lines has a big recruiting center in Bali, but none on neighboring islands - where they could get employees at half the cost!) I have not been able to fully understand the reasons behind the natural social skills of the Balinese. But as Talent Smart and others point out, social skills can be improved, while IQ (normally key for success) cannot. Yes, the IQ numbers for South Africa and neighboring countries are low by world standards. I am not an expert on how those national IQ numbers were determined, but the academically qualified authors seem to have analyzed all the existing data and made their best judgment comparisons. No other respected researchers have successfully shed doubt on the general accuracy of their country IQ findings.

You mention that there is strong emphasis on psychometric test testing in South Africa. That may fit with what I have pioneered. My emphasis has been on testing that provides valid results. Other firms like Talent Smart offer training to improve people's social skills, particularly needed for low scoring individuals. I have no professional or personal relationship with Talent Smart, except that we work in the same general area of social skills. My Social Quotient surveys have been well received in all types of neighborhoods, including low income, mostly Black schools in California and New York City. One Brooklyn teacher wrote me: "I must tell you that several students used the SQ when they went for job interviews & it made a great impression (in a few cases, it may have been the deciding factor in getting the job)."

Your interest in pursuing a business connection in South Africa for social skills testing is of interest to me. My system seems to work best in high school settings, where students know each other and can evaluate the personality of their classmates. And high schools also offer a natural forum for training in social skills, along with job seeking skills. A government grant to finance a pilot program for testing and perhaps training in several schools would be an effective way to start. I do not have the funds to pay for initial marketing costs. But if you have the interest, I would welcome partnership proposals from you to investigate possibilities to do schools testing in South Africa. Together, we could help your country position itself well in the booming worldwide tourist/ service jobs sector, as Bali has done. South Africa cannot do much to improve its national IQ scores and competitiveness in technology, particularly against many Asian nations. But valuable social skills are largely independent of IQ scores. South African employment, particularly in tourism, could boom. It would be exciting to help that happen. What do you think?

Sincerely, Van

PS Feel free to share this email (or parts of it) with others in South Africa

From: "jay baker"


Subject: IQ, Asian european comparison, doesnt make sense

Date: Thu, 26 Jul 2007 22:48:09 +1000

Hello there, out of curiosity, i find it quite contradictory that east asian nations apparently have higher IQ's yet european nations have been without a doubt the most successful race on the planet in terms of technology etc and space of time of which this has occured.

Ive read through a number of pieces of iq data and found German and Dutch average IQ's of 109 as well as whites,(mostly german, norwegian and dutch), compared against asians,( mostly japanese chinese and korean), with whites scoring 105 and asians scoring 104.

Also in comparing some of your SAT data i found that the verbal scores all added together equalled 3815 while math was 3888. I find this unusual because i was under the impression that whites were significantly better at verbal, not at maths.

Could this be potentially caused by the weighting systems, the same of which are used in IQ tests, where spatial and math is weighted higher than that of verbal? Why is it that males have apparently higher IQ's than females, yet females almost consistantly out-perform males in academics and hold the majority of university placements?

Taking into account certain social differences between the two, it seems odd that males would exceed females in IQ by this much. But overall my general question is " why is it that east asians apparently have higher IQs than whites when europeans are clearly more technologically adavnced?",

Is it to do with IQ test weighting?, The lack homogenity in europeans and greater variation? Or a greater value on education which has transferred itself on to IQ over time in relation to east asians? My main reasons for questioning the statistics today is that they dont seem to correlate with history.

Virtually every other IQ comparison between races and nations seems to make sense historically except this one, i understand that there are other factors but generally to an extent the results correlate.

What do you think?

Sloan replies: Jay, you ask a lot of good questions. Let me answer, as I do in my website, emphasizing what professionals generally agree about IQ. The numbers below refer to your paragraphs.

1. IQ is important, but is obviously not the only factor in the success of nations. Check out my - especally the leading nations throughout history. In the Middle Ages, Chinese culture was much more advanced than that of Europe. Another page ( ) presents data showing that corruption is also an important influence in economic success. Asian nations today score worse than Europe on corruption.

2. A German professor who has analyzed IQ's in various German regions (see ) does not show any approaching the 109 you mention. That professor has recently commented favorably on my original work on IQ's for US states.

3. Yes, whites are somewhat better in verbal than in math skills, compared to world averages. The differences in SAT totals are related to the construction of subtests, and are not a valid measure of IQ skills.

4. The only weighting of IQ/ SAT tests that I am aware of is to make the overall average for males and females to be the same (normally 100). Females on average score slightly better on verbal tests, males are typically better in math. In overall IQ, males have a greater range of scores (both high and low) which likely accounts for more men winning Nobel prizes, etc. Women do better in getting in and staying in college probably due to study skills, not superior IQ.

5 - 7. (see item 1 above).

Jay answers: Thankyou very much for your answer, it clears a few things up, in relation to much of the IQ data regarding germans i found this, its the only source i could confirm as being potentially primary as it seems to have come from a newspaper, it may be of some use for your information, as much of the data available over the internet is often un sourced. I am aware through more recent research that IQ tests dont test creativity and problem solving, so creativity is probably the driving force of European technological advancement, creativity essentially is the process of abstract thought as you know. Also you have said that the chinese characters could stifle creativity, yet arnt languages the manifestations of an individuals or races general intelligence, or in other words languages materialise in the image of our own intelligence. the attachment is the iq data info, i understand it may be an outlier in statistics or possibly not, Germany and the neatherlands score at 107. the sample seems to be real and not contrived.

Sloan replies again: Jay, I think we will just have to agree to disagree on German IQ. From your comments, it would seem you did not go to Volkmar Weiss's webpage cited in my last email. He is a Member of the International Academy of Sciences and in Germany's Who's Who - and I trust his well documented research much more than an IQ number from any newspaper. Academics have thorough peer review on IQ numbers, as shown in my website at

You are right that the connection (if any) between IQ and creativity is not well known. IQ is more than verbal skill, and the Chinese do better in the math part of IQ. I don't recall saying anything about Chinese creativity. However, the difficulty of learning Chinese characters may explain why their verbal part of IQ is lower (and their math part higher) than Europeans with similar overall IQ's.

copy to Volkmar Weiss

Weiss responds in 8/13/07 email: Of course, Germany and the Netherlands had never an IQ average of 107 or even 109. Volkmar Weiss

From: "Jim DeLap"


Subject: SOCIAL SKILLS/AMBITION??? 90% non-verbal in service smile economy?

Date: Wed, 18 Jul 2007 21:12:41 -0700

Sloan replies: Jim, I am not sure what your email question means. My research indicates that success in life (measured by money earned) is due roughtly 1/3 each to intelligence, social skills, and ambition. This likely varies with types of jobs. Managerial jobs seem to have greater dependence on social skiils as one climbs the corporate ladder. But I have not found reliable numbers beyond the 1/3 components above.

Date: Tue, 3 Apr 2007 11:56:20 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Parhatsathid Napatalung"

Subject: How Well a Child Behaves Predict Future Success

To: "Van Sloan"

Dear Van Sloan:

More information to say that you were right about social skills being a future predictor of success.


Behavior at age 8 may be enough to predict future career success

By Diane Swanbrow, News Service

New findings from long-term studies conducted in two nations over more than 30 years show that children's social behavior as early as age 8 is a powerful predictor of how well they will do in middle age......

Sloan replies:

Dear Professor Ted,

Thank you so much for your sharp eyes in finding the article below. It provides wonderful confirmation of my research on the importance of social skills.

Recently a German professor provided confirmation of my work on IQ's in US states (see the bottom of ). Hopefully, what you found below will similarly lead to a renewed interest in the teaching of social skills and in my SQ measure of those skills. It is most interesting that the study's methodology is the same as mine: each person's social skill was measured only by the ratings of peers, on very similar questions!

I've just returned to California from three delightful months in Mexico. Most Mexicans have wonderful social skills and a happy family life. Now I am ejoying some spring skiing at Lake Tahoe before taking off again in late May to Rio de Janeiro. You can see photo albums of my travels at

Thanks again, Van

From: "Linda Vincent"

To: "Van Sloan"

Date: Mon, 22 Jan 2007 05:56:38 -0800 (PST)

Subject: Re: Permission to Link Your Site - "Social Quotient"

Hi. We checked out your site 'Social Quotient' and liked the content provided on it. We have a site offering IQ tests. Since yours is a related site, we would like to put up a link to your site on this page. In return we wish that you would put a link to our site on yours. To help you in doing so we have provided the information given below:

Sloan replies: Linda, Thanks for your good words on my Social Quotient site. I have tried to give unbiased information on IQ. Did you see my webpage, which generally discourages online IQ tests as unreliable? If you have research that your IQ test is better than most online tests, and that your results approximate MENSA and similar standard IQ tests, I would welcome the reciprocal links you suggest. It would be good for people to have reliable, low cost, online IQ tests available. I could not find such research

From: preeth menon

Date: Sat, 6 Jan 2007 06:37:21 -0800 (PST)

To: "Van Sloan"

Subject: Re: IQ

I beleive Asian Indians are racially heterogenous and so have a large distribution of IQ for exampl mine is 138. Cn you tell me more about Asian Indian IQs

Sloan replies: Preeth, your thoughts about IQ in India are likely correct. Steve Sailer has written a good analysis of it at - here is an excerpt:

The average IQ of India and China is crucial to the future of the world. But the question is far from settled. Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen's IQ and the Wealth of Nations found three IQ studies of China, which averaged out to 100 on a scale where the U.S. average is 98. As I've tried to emphasize, single-country averages from that important book should be taken with a grain of salt, but regional averages are more reliable. The more advanced and better-documented countries bordering China feature even higher average IQs. So the future looks bright for China. In contrast, Lynn and Vanhanen found four studies of Indian IQ that average out to only 81. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the variance in IQ is greater in India than in China. There may be more geniuses in India than in China but the average level of competence seems lower. However, putting together a nationally-representative sample is harder in India than anywhere else on Earth. The caste system, by discouraging intermarriage, has in effect subdivided the Indian people into an incredible number of micro-races. In India, according to Cavalli-Sforza, "The total number of endogamous communities today is around 43,000…" So I would keep an open mind on just what the IQ of India is. And, of course, better nutrition, health care, education, and more outbreeding could all work to raise it.

From: "Michael A McDaniel/AC/VCU"

To: "Van Sloan"

Date: Fri, 1 Dec 2006 08:02:37 -0800 (PST)

Subject: Re: Fw: Estimating IQ averages in US States

Mr. Sloan,

Given your interest in state IQ, I thought I would alert you to this blogger who is having fun with state IQ estimates.

Best wishes, Mike

Michael A. McDaniel, Professor - Human Resources and Organizational Behavior

Department of Management, Virginia Commonwealth University

Sloan replies: Mike, Thanks for the alert. But I'm more intersted in what serious observers (like yourself and Volkmar Weiss) have to say.

You might be interested in one unexpected finding I came across this summer, in Indonesia. Since it is from unexpected results that science often advances, I wonder what you two might think. Here is a definite case where IQ and income are not in step:

Subject: question on IQ and politics


Has there been more in depth research done on this and if so do you know where I could find some literature on it? The numbers are fun, but I would really like to read more on it. Thank you., Nick

Sloan replies: Nick, I too would like to find good research on IQ and politics. What I have on my site is the best information I know about - including the IQ of the various US states.

One new political aspect of IQ I have recently discovered is in Indonesia . The country's vice president notes that Java students have always scored higher on standard tests than students in neighboring islands. This is surprising for two reasons:

1. The genetic makeup in Indonesia is about the same on all islands. 2. Bali people earn about twice what Java people do. If Java people are smarter, why don't they earn more, as is the case in the US and other countries where IQ varies by region?

copy to: Volkmar Weiss - which is answered below

Date: Sat, 2 Dec 2006 09:46:53 -0800 (PST)

From: Volmar Weiss"

To: "Van Sloan"

Subject: Bali - Java income difference

Java has a substantial Chinese minority with a much higher IQ mean and a higher income than the native people. Volkmar

Sloan replies: Yes Volkmar, the Chinese in Java likely are a reason for that island's higher school scores. But that still leaves the mystery of why the non-Chinese in Java earn so much less than their Balinese peers. I suspect that Balinese friendliness is a big reason behind their much higher incomes. That friendliness draws major resorts to Bali, which raises overall wages there. Another example is that Carnival Cruise Lines has a big recruiting center in Bali, but none in Java - where they could hire workers for half the pay. Since social skills can be improved, the Bali model may be a lesson to other low wage areas around the world - particularly where the average IQ is below 90. Thailand similarly seems to benefit from being the "land of smiles." Van

From: Volkmar Weiss"

Date: 11/26/2006 03:01 PM


cc "Dr. Heiner Rindermann" Heiner.Rindermann@GSE-W.Uni-Magdeburg.DE, "Siegfried Lehrl",

Subject Estimating IQ averages in US States

Dear Dr. McDaniel:

Dear Dr. Kanazawa:

Since years you can find on my homepage a link to, leading to IQ averages in US States, best estimate from actual SAT and ACT scores by Van Sloan. These scores are nearly identical with the NAEP derived scores by McDaniel.

I am very astonished that neither you nor the editor of "Intelligence" were aware of this link. Within the next hour I will load the arithmetic mean of the data by Van Sloane and McDaniel to my webpage mentioned above.

Sincerely yours

PD Dr. Dr. habil. Volkmar Weiss

Leipzig, Germany

From: Michael A McDaniel/AC/VCU

To: Volkmar Weiss

Cc: ; Dr. Heiner Rindermann ; Siegfried Lehrl ;

Sent: Sunday, November 26, 2006 9:46 PM

Subject: Re: Estimating IQ averages in US States

Dr. Weiss,

Thank you for informing me of this link. If you had your data in a peer reviewed journal, it would be more widely known. The peer review of your findings would also permit one to place more confidence in the estimates.

By tracing citations on my recent article, I have come across a few other websites and blogs that offer IQ listings by state. Here are two: The November blog entries list a variety of estimates by race. The blogger is purportedly using the NAEP data. This article discusses my estimates and provide information on past estimates (none of them yours).

Best wishes,


Michael A. McDaniel

Professor - Human Resources and Organizational Behavior

Department of Management

Virginia Commonwealth University

From "Volkmar Weiss"

Date: 11/26/2006 04:36 PM

To "Michael A McDaniel/AC/VCU"

Subject: Re: Estimating IQ averages in US States

Dear Mike,

these were not my findings, only linking my homepage to Van Sloans webpage is my contribution.

You should be glad, you and Van Sloare are confirming each other . Kanazawa calculations are biased in a nonsensical way, and if were aware of Van Sloane before writing your comment on Kanazawa you could have said it more frankly.

I have published more than 180 papers and, now, I am only modestly interested in the opinion of a broader public.


From: Michael A McDaniel/AC/VCU

To: Volkmar Weiss

Sent: Monday, November 27, 2006 1:42 AM

Subject: Re: Estimating IQ averages in US States


Check the links on your page. I could find no information of how the IQ estimates were calculated. Also I do not know who Van Sloan is or why I should trust his numbers. Given this lack of documentation, why would you expect anyone to cite this information in a journal article or rely on it for research?


Date: Mon, 27 Nov 2006 13:24:28 -0800 (PST)

From: Volkmar Weiss"

Subject: Fw: Estimating IQ averages in US States

To: "Van Sloan"


(Weiss forwarded the above emails to Sloan)

Sloan replies: Hello Volkmar,

The page on my website that shows how the state IQ's were calculated is /P>

The IQ's were developed out of SAT and ACT test scores in each state. The page above and its links (mostly below the chart) show in detail where all the data came from. Information on my degrees and experience are at

I am sending Mike McDaniel a copy of this email as a response to his concerns. His email indicated that my findings on state IQ's were cited in a journal article. I would welcome knowing which journal. If possible, I would also welcome an email copy of the article, or at least the paragraph in which my work is cited. To my knowledge, my state IQ numbers are the only ones available for which there is solid data backup.

Thanks for forwarding your information to me. Hope this helps!

Van Sloan

From: Michael A McDaniel/AC/VCU

To: Van Sloan

Cc: Volkmar Weiss

Sent: Tuesday, November 28, 2006 12:47 AM

Subject: Re: Fw: Estimating IQ averages in US States

Mr. Sloan,

I attach a copy of my paper on estimating state IQs. According to Professor Weiss our estimates are very close. I was not aware of your web site when I did my article. The estimated state IQ is predictive of gross state product, government effectiveness, crime and health. You can download another paper of mine critiquing Kanazawa's estimates of state IQ based on SATs. He ignored the ACT data and got odd results. The web site is: If you do any additional work on estimating IQ, please share it with me so I will know about it.

Best wishes, Mike McDaniel

Volkmar Weiss wrote:

Dear colleagues:

I am very glad to see that you have made contact. Your results are confirming each other in a very remarkable way, and this is in science always an extraordinary event.

My only merit in this is to have made a link to Van Sloans webpage about a year ago. I would never made this link if I had not found Van Sloanes data reasonable. Sometimes an outsider, but with a firm academic background, does a better work than a peer referenced journal, in this case I mean Kanazawa and his referees. Kananzawas paper should not have been printed.

In the meantime you can find the arithmetic means of your data on my homepage, see

I wish you much further success! Your results, deducing IQ values from educational tests with math, reading etc. confirm the importance and meaning of general intelligence in an excellent way, this is the general message of your work and of confirming each other.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen


From Weiss' site -

IQ averages in US States (in the following the arithmetic means of these estimates from SAT and ACT scores by Van Sloan and the NAEP derived scores published by M. A. McDaniel: Intelligence 34 (2006) p. 612, corrected by minus 3 to an average of IQ 97:

Massachusetts IQ 101, New Hampshire IQ 101,

Connecticut IQ 100, Iowa IQ 100, Kansas IQ 100, Minnesota IQ 100, North Dacota IQ 100, Montana IQ 100, Vermont IQ 100, Wisconsin IQ 100,

Wyoming IQ 99 ,Nebraska IQ 99, New Jersey IQ 99, Ohio IQ 99, Colorado IQ 99, Oregon IQ 99. Maine IQ 99, Washington IQ 99,South Dacota IQ 99,

New York IQ 98, Pennsylvania IQ 98, Maryland IQ 98, Missouri IQ 98,Oklahoma IQ 98,Utah IQ 98, Michigan IQ 98,Virginia IQ 98,Idaho IQ 98, Illinois IQ 98, Indiana IQ 98,

Rhode Island IQ 97, West Virginia IQ 97, , Delaware IQ 97, Alaska IQ 97, Arizona IQ 96, Nevada IQ 96, Texas IQ 96,North Carolina IQ 96

Florida IQ 95, Tennessee IQ 95, , Kentucky IQ 95, Arkansas IQ 95, California IQ 95, Georgia IQ 95, Hawaii IQ 95,

Alabama IQ 94

South Carolina IQ 93,New Mexico IQ 93,Louisiana IQ 93,

Mississippi IQ 91

Date: Wed, 29 Nov 2006 06:33:47 -0800 (PST)

From: "Van Sloan"

Subject: Re: Fw: Estimating IQ averages in US States

To: "Volkmar Weiss"


Dear Volkmar,

Thank you so much for your kind words and for bringing several of us in contact. We are a minority. It is unfortunate that serious study of population IQ remains politically incorrect in much of academia and the press.

I support your averaging of McDaniel's and my data as the current best estimate of IQ's in US states. But I think further refinements could be made. For example, several states with large Spanish speaking populations (California, Florida, New Mexico) calculate to lower IQ scores than what might be expected. One must wonder if the lower NAEP test scores in those states reflect a limited student familiarity with English, rather than lower IQ's.

Second, net in and out migration could be a factor affecting the accuracy of using elementary school test scores. Many US plains states youngsters move to the coasts for jobs when they become adults. Those coastal states generally have higher average home prices, reflecting their high wage (and high IQ) jobs. Most of the public's fascination in state IQ's relates to the adult population, particularly as voters.

My interests now are moving away from IQ to studying other reasons for individual and national succsss. It is frustrating that so little can be done to improve IQ, especially after the age of five. And although my website gets good comments for handling ethnic questions on IQ, I am not as strong as Charles Murray in handling skepticism on it, even with family. My webpage describes my current efforts to develop measurement of social skills. They also relate to success and can be improved, unlike IQ This research has a side benefit in taking me to friendly, beautiful spots like Bali. And it gves me the opportunity to pioneer in an area badly needing numerical analyis rather than its current Emotional Intelligence generalizations.

Thanks again,

Van Sloan

Date: Fri, 20 Oct 2006 12:24:42 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Parhatsathid Napatalung"

Subject: ethics around the world

To: "Van Sloan">

Van Sloan:

While I.Q. is related to economic development, the lack of ethics (for lack of a better word) is a variable that tends pull down economically also. It is no wonder that ethics is an important variable in business. But this is not the only score of course, a more wider score as you have mentioned is the friendliness score too. A company can't simply work together if your co-workers are absolutely abnoxious!

Ethics is an issue that I find to have a very good predictive variable of corruption and was important during my studies of corruption. A person without ethics could write laws till the end of time and there will always be loopholes or lapses in the word of the law.

Some parts of the world, such as Thailand, and the South East Asian Pacific rim, ethics is really not part of the cultural makeup. Most of the ethics is based on the untaught individual ethic, which works like face saving mechanism. This level of ethics is even lower still in Africa where it is almost non-existent.

For instance, in Thailand personal ethics is somewhat lacking, while business ethics is somewhat better. Japan is unique, their level of ethics is quite high (keeping their word) and it is in my personal opinion is at least higher or equally higher than U.S. Japan, therefore is unique in that aspect, while Korea, is not as high on that area.

Most ethics taught and ethics practice are two wholly different things. Ethics is taught in Buddhist precepts occurs a lot here in Thailand, but rarely is it practiced. It is only lip service and part of the social functions than it is about the philosophy.

In U.S., things that are taught are quite often implemented. In U.S. most ethics have a firm roots in religion and most of them is actually practiced, but rarely is it questioned. And in certain parts of Europe, ethics is learned somewhat with historical references as opposed to religious doctrine.

What I can say is religion, especially the U.S. religion plays a very important part on the ethics, moral and behavior of people, while most other countries, this is an exception to the rule. This I can say with certainty.


Sloan replies: Hi Ted,

My travels around the world make me realize that corruption and lax morals are much more of a problem than in the US. While we have headline stories of governmental and business lapses, these seem exceptions to me - as compared to what I see in Indonesia, for example. I wonder if the ethics taught by Christian churches influence the difference between American/ European practices vs those in other parts of the world. I do believe that those differences contribute to a lower standard of life in many parts of the world.

Last night I watched on TV the last of a PBS series: Guns, Germs, and Steel. It is based on a 1997 Pulitzer prize-winning book of the same name. Fortunately, the South Lake Tahoe library was able to get that book for me and I have enjoyed reading it. The author offers many insights into why history developed differently around the world, a topic of interest to me. The book was prompted by a question from a New Guinea friend of the author as to why Europeans were so much more advanced technologically than those in his country. Thr author completely dismisses any differenced in human groups (like IQ), focusing on other, more politically correct explanations, like differences in geography. Unfortunately this IQ blind spot if typical of liberals, particularly in university professors (who are supposed to be open to all truth).

In contrast with other research at universities, a politically correct approach seriously hurts the ability of researchers to find good answers to vexing human problems. For example, the TV series ended with a comparison of the economies of sub-Saharan Africa with those in similar latitudes in Singapore and Malaysia. It was ironic to me that the show lamented the effects of European colonization in Africa, while not mentioning the impact of British governing on the success of its Asian colonies. Test scores in the US and around the world abundantly show that, on average, East Asians have the highest IQ’s, followed by Europeans, and Latinos. Black average IQ’ are consistently the lowest, as is the success of their economies (as shown in my popular webpage). As someone heavily involved in Education, these persistent IQ differences concern me, and I cannot suggest good answers. But I am strongly convinced that ignoring IQ differences, as many of our intellectual leaders do, will never lead to new approaches that have real promise.

Typical review of the book: Perhaps the overriding problem with "Guns, Germs and Steel" is its political correctness. (My sentiments exactly! The book and TV programs lack the understanding of IQ and ethics differences around the world that you and I have been discussing.)

Date: Tue, 17 Oct 2006 11:37:13 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Parhatsathid Napatalung"

Subject: Re: Fat people have lower intelligence?

To: "Van Sloan"

Amusing research on intelligence and fat people. Not to be taken seriously of course, but something to think about.

Sloan replies: Ted,

Thanks for sending me that clip on obesity and IQ. I wonder if it should be taken seriously. This abstract below from the Neurology journal looks real to me.

NEUROLOGY 2006;67:1208-1214 © 2006 American Academy of Neurology

Relation between body mass index and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged men and women

M. Cournot, MD , J. C. Marquié, PhD , D. Ansiau, PhD , C. Martinaud, MD , H. Fonds, MD , J. Ferrières, MD, MSc, FESC and J. B. Ruidavets, MD From INSERM U558, Toulouse University School of Medicine (M.C., J.F., J.-B.R.); Department of Epidemiology, CHU Toulouse (M.C., J.F., J.-B.R.); Work and Cognition Laboratory, CNRS UMR 5551, University of Toulouse-le Mirail (J.-C.M., D.A.); Service Interuniversitaire de Médecine Préventive et de Protection de la Santé (C.M.); and Inspection Médicale du Travail, Direction Régionale du Travail et de l’Emploi (H.F.), Toulouse, France. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Maxime Cournot, Department of Epidemiology, Toulouse University Hospital, INSERM U558, 37, allées Jules Guesdes, 31073 Toulouse cedex, France; e-mail: Objective: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with cognitive function and cognitive decline in healthy men and women. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we analyzed data from 2,223 healthy workers aged 32 to 62 years at baseline. Medical, psychosocial, and environmental data were collected in 1996 and in 2001. We tested cognitive functions at baseline and at follow-up with word-list learning (four recalls), a Digit–Symbol Substitution Test, and a selective attention test. Results: Cross-sectionally, a higher BMI was associated with lower cognitive scores after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, blood pressure, diabetes, and other psychosocial covariables. A higher BMI at baseline was also associated with a higher cognitive decline at follow-up, after adjustment for the above-cited confounding factors. This association was significant for word-list learning. For the changes in scores at word-list learning (delayed recall), regression coefficients were –0.008 ± 0.13, –0.09 ± 0.13, –0.17 ± 0.14, and –0.35 ± 0.14 (p for trend < 0.001) for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of BMI at baseline when compared with the first quintile. No significant association was found between changes in BMI and cognitive function.

Conclusions: Body mass index was independently associated both with cognitive function (word-list learning and Digit–Symbol Substitution Test) and changes in word-list learning in healthy, nondemented, middle-aged men and women.

Date: Fri, 6 Oct 2006 15:03:57 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Van Sloan"

Subject: Re: IQ Question

To: "Jeremy -----"

Hello I have some questions that you might beable to answer for me. I recently had my IQ scores from the WISC-3 test. They were as follows...

115 Verbal IQ

95 Performance IQ

106 Full Scale IQ

I've been dianosed with a Basic Reading Skills and Written expression disability. Now it has been well noted that I suffer from depression and ADHD. I've been reading about IQ testing directly relating to your academic achievement and the such. Well it has me very worried to the point where I feel like just giving up because I have so many things telling me I can't do it. I've completed my associates degree in Business Adminstration with a 3.172 GPA at a community college. I will admit though that I don't put for any effort at all, I study 30 mins to 3 hours before the test and usually get B's and A's. I'm transfering to a 4 year university next quarter and I'm majoring in Economics. My goal in life is to teach. It's my passion in life, it's what keeps me going. It just feels like I'm trying to pull a 2000lb boulder up a hill and I'm not going anywhere. Now, heres my question for you. What is the different between Verbal and Performance IQs? Is one a more accurate predictor of my true IQ? I've taken IQ tests online and the scores usually come out to be 120-130 which is within the 1 standard deviation of my 115 Verbal IQ. I feel like I'm much smarter than a true IQ of 106. I was one of them children who didn't care about anything.... I sat through my professiency test and just went... A B C D A B C D A B C D.... just to get out of class. I've always been a slacker all my life. My brain has always been selective of what I want to learn... Like I can tell you all of Adam Smiths theorys and I can explain the whole entire Wealth of Nations book to you... But my brain won't allow me to process information such as Robert Frost's poems... I start going to my 4 year university next year and I'm scared. I don't know what to do... Can you give me your opinion?

Sloan replies: Jeremy, your record of success in school is more important than what you happened to score on an IQ test. It is likely that the test you took did not take into account your disabilities. Verbal IQ is considered closest to true IQ. To lessen your worries about University courses, you might want to talk to a counselor there about how some subjects are more challenging for you than others. You might try to fill course requirements with subjects you like and can do well with. I also am turned on by Economics, and have even written a well received high school text on the subject. Check out my - you can even read some chapters from my book there. You seem to be progressing well towards your goals. Good luck!

Date: Sun, 9 Jul 2006 20:58:55 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Jason Auxier"

Subject: Re: IQ stability

To: "Van Sloan"

Please let me begin by saying that I find your website on IQ very intriguing. For a number of years, I have questioned fundamental meaning and interpretation of IQ. Physical quantities like force, distance, electrical charge, and electrical current are defined in definite experimental terms without the need to lean on examples. Can IQ really be clearly defined without example? Without giving an example, what do you really mean by cognitive, spatial, or mathematical ability? Also, I have a question concerning IQ being stable for an individual. When I was in elementary school and in high school, I was tested resulting in 105 to 110 range (unfortunately, I do not know which test was used). In the second year of graduate school, I was tested using the Wechsler and Standford-Binet with scores of 134 and 136, respectively. I also went from a score on the ACT in the 55th percentile to a GRE score of 2100. During graduate school, I have met a number of others with similar results (even one who went from below 100 to the mid-130's) . How common is it for a person to increase their IQ by over a standard deviation like this?

Thanks, Aux

Sloan replies: Aux, your questions point out some of the limitations of our knowledge of IQ. It is part of psychology, a much less exact science than others. Definitions of intelligence are largely made by the tests that IQ reseachers develop. In spite of its limitations, however, I believe that IQ studies can provide useful information that organizations and nations can use. We do have information that IQ is much more stable than your results would indicate. Except for medical problems, it is fairly constant over a lifetime. Problems with individual testing, rather than IQ itself likely caused the differences you have noted.

Aux replies: Hi Slone, Thanks for addressing my questions. This does clear some things up, but answers always raise additional questions. The definition of intelligence in terms of the IQ tests seems reasonable; however, it would create some serious interpretive problems. Perhaps this is where much of the controversy lies. There is plenty of evidence to suggest medical problems can decrease intelligence of an individual, but what kind of medical problem would IMPROVE intelligence (youth to adult)? Wouldn't a formal scientific education greatly enhance one's aptitude for solving analytical problems and recognizing patterns? Wouldn't this enhancement show up in the results of an IQ test? A definition in terms of exams opens the door to the possibility that IQ can be altered by education, even if this is a rare occurrence. The question is how rare.

Sloan replies: You ask great questions. On IQ tests, the best ones try to correlate as closely as possible to other measures of intelligence: SAT tests, school grades, reading scores, etc. Most scientists believe that intelligence is a single, but elusive trait. On improving IQ, the strongest evidence is for good nutrition from pregnancy to age 5. Africa's low IQ scores are somewhat due to poor nutrition and health factors that don't allow children to reach their IQ potential. On study programs to enhance IQ, only one so far has solid data to support that: the study of Chinese, Japanese. or Korean ideograms (writing). Interestingly, east Asian children in the US who learn only English score lower in math IQ ( and particularly the spactial component) than their immigrant parents or east Asian peers. Your ideas of a scientific education would probably increase math IQ scores, but only to the extent the math tests assume certain knowledge skills. Vebal tests expect less specific knowledge and their scores are considered closer to true IQ than math test results. For students at all IQ levels, the better their education the better their test scores - as seen with SAT tests. But I feel that their IQ does not improve compared to their peers. Rather their ambition and ability to think more like the test creators leads to higher scores - as in SAT prep courses. Nevertheless, higher scores reflecting more knowledge is still a good outcome. Actually average IQ scores have been steadily increasing in developed countries for decades. No one has offered a satisfactory explanation, but some of my above points may play a factor. IQ remains an important but elusive topic!

Aux replies: Hi Slone, Thank you for the complement. I do appreciate it, but it was unnecessary. As you know, asking the right questions (no matter how obvious) is the only way that science progresses. You make some interesting points and I was unaware that Asian Americans underperform their homeland counterparts. Do you know of anyone who has looked at GRE scores of Asians who came here for graduate school as compared to Americans, especially in engineering and science? There is plenty of data to be had (order of magnitude of 10,000/year). Throw out the slugs that don't graduate. Now, one thing that I know is that the only foreign students that come over are the best from their country, so they scored much higher (mean and median) than their American classmates. May I note that this is in all three subjects, including verbal. And, if you have every had an Asian TA or worked with one in the lab, you know that they do not have a mastery of the English language (written or verbal). Additionally, I would rather have an American graduate student working in my lab since they have better intuition concerning solving hands-on problems. The question is why do Americans outperform Asians in research and collect more Nobel Prizes? You point concerning the elusiveness of IQ is interesting. Perhaps we have a lot to learn about intelligence and how it manifests itself. Properly interpreting data is sometimes difficult, especially when things are not concrete. Perhaps ponder some of the following questions and let me know what you think. Why do some of the most brilliant theoretical physicists have the best skills in mathematics, spatial manipulation, and the verbal and written word, but cannot fix their car or program a computer? Why can some mechanics can intuitively understand how to maximize the horsepower of an engine without being able to learn how to read, write, and perform simple arithmetic? Why can many of the best software engineers write code in many programming languages, but cannot figure out anything about the hardware they are writing their code on? Likewise, why can't some of the best computer engineers write C++ code to save their life? Why do physicists have such a hard time understanding biology/medicine and why do biologists have such a hard time understanding physics? In other words, if IQ increases your ability to solve problems, then wouldn't a person with a higher IQ have the ability to learn each of these skills with greater ease than someone with a lower IQ? Also, wouldn't someone with a higher IQ be able to learn all of these with the same level of ease? If not, then what is the proper interpretation of one's IQ score?

Sloan replies: Aux, as usual, you ask good questions. But I have no new information to help in their answers. I do believe people have traits or skills other than IQ which causes some of the situations you describe. Howard Gardner of Harvard believes some of these are evidence of multiple intelligences, but his is a minority view, mainly popular with educators. We do need more research and hard evidence on IQ. Garder and I (supported by a Yale prof) had a spat on this! It's in my website.

Date: Mon, 19 Jun 2006 00:38:04 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Mikko Wanzek"

Subject: Re: Finnish IQ

To: "Van Sloan"

Hello, my mom was born in Finland and I am half Finnish, so I might be slightly biased, but I was wondering about your IQ estimates for Finland, on your website it says the average IQ of Finland is only 97, I saw this a long time ago and it sounded somewhat reasonable, maybe slightly low, but a while ago I noticed that Finland was one of the highest scorers on the PISA test which is a test administered to many countries, and is basically an IQ test (do a internet search) in fact I think they scored the highest out of any country that took it (even the East Asian Countries) on the Reading Comprehension section and Mathematical Reasoning section, and were like third on the Science section, on a recent test. This actually made more sense to me because most of the Finns I know are fairly smart, and I scored quite well on my SAT. They also have the lowest rate of corruption according to your website which correlated quite well with IQ. If I had to guess I would say their average IQ is more around 108. Where did you get your estimates? I personally would think the PISA would be a better predictor of IQ than some small study because it was administered to many people. Also unlike the East Asian countries, from what I've read and heard the Finnish school system is not very rigorous, which means they scored high on the test despite an unrigorous school system.

Also, I have a question. I think it would be interesting to see a some information on what the average income for certain IQ ranges are in the United States, for example what the average income for somebody in the 130-135 IQ range is, but I haven't yet been able to find this information on the internet, do you have any suggestions, or would you be interested in finding the information?

Sloan replies: Mikko. my webpage listing nations IQ also includes this section:

The book's authors Lynn (psychology, U. of Ulster) and Vanhanen (political science, U. of Helsinki) analyzed 168 national IQ studies. They argue that a significant part of the gap between rich and poor countries is due to differences in national intelligence. There is a similar pattern within the United States, where higher IQ states have higher incomes. On Lynn's website you can see:

the IQ data sources used for 60 countries (at and IQs for 185 countries - some "Based on the IQs of Neighbouring or Other Comparable Countries" (at http://www

Since one of the authors who came up with the IQ by nation data is Finnish, Iit would seem unlikely that he would allow an innacurate, low score for Finland! On your question of incomes for different IQ's, I am not aware of data like that. Many high IQ people do not achieve the incomes of bright lawyers and doctors, perhaps because thay are smart not to want to work too hard, according to some studies.

Date: Fri, 28 Apr 2006 15:48:04 -0700 (PDT)

From: "Van Sloan"

Subject: Our great phone conversation


Hi Daniel,

It was wonderful to get your call today. You are full with enthusiasm on ways to bring Social Quotient to the world! I look forward to your ideas and to working with you.

From out chat, here are some SQ website pages you might want to check out: - information on me - history of SQ and its website - my research on friendliness in SE Asia

I'll be in Bali, Indonesia for this from May 18 to September 10.

Your idea of having groups of 15-20 people, who all know each other, take the SQ test online could work. But perhaps we might first concentrate on the corporate training/ evaluation market. It would require minimal new programming and the process could be quite similar to the SQ surveys I have done with over 80 classes of high school students. Your friends at Proflinx would know how to sell to this market, we could seek high prices, and any difficulties in operation could be solved without becoming a public relations embarrassment. We could use our experience there to move carefully into an online market worldwide for individuals and small groups.

So glad you contacted me,


Date: Sat, 22 Apr 2006 16:50:29 -0700 (PDT)

From: "dick lokken"

Subject: Re: IQ

To: "Van Sloan"

I am a retired Navy man with some college and my IQ was recently measured at 126. How does this fair among my brothers and sisters in the United States? Rich

Sloan replies: Rich,

Check out It shows that a 126 IQ is in the top 4% of Americans, and just above the IQ of President Bush. One note of caution: if your 126 number was from an Internet or other casual IQ test, your real IQ number is likely to be lower.


"Bob Sommers" <>


Re: an added phoning time


Fri, 7 Apr 2006 16:08:07 -1000


"Van Sloan" <>

Van. I do have a question. I'm under the impression that we tend to like smart/intelligent people. Not know-it-alls however. Is that true based on what your studies have found?

Thanks a million, Bob Sommers

Sloan replies: Bob, my research showed that there was no correlation with brains when the question on the Social Quotient survey was: "Who in your school class would you most/ least want to spend a lunch break with?"

But that question was felt to be just a popularity question, and students soon forced a change to a criteria they could mark more easily (which employers also preferred): "If all your classmates were sales clerks at a department store, whom would you most/ least want to help you?" This question did have a correlation with IQ. When asked, students admitted they didn't want a dumb clerk to help in a transaction." But I do not consider this to be as pure a likability question as the lunch break one.

Almost all my data was collected using the sales clerk question. You can see the correlations of social skills to intelligence and other personal characteristics (like happiness) at

Click for: questions prior to April 1, 2006

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